Write a short essay (approx. 3-4 pages double spaced), in which you select one theory from Modules 4-6 (existential, humanistic, or liberation/feminist theories) to apply to Farzanna’’s psychological concerns. Justify WHY you have picked this particular theory to understand Farzanna’s experience, and not the two others.

I’m working on a psychology writing question and need an explanation to help me study.


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  1. Watch the video case study uploaded of a person named Farzanna discussing her experience of psychological distress.
  1. Pretend you are Farzanna’s therapist and she has come to see you for help.
  2. Write a short essay (approx. 3-4 pages double spaced), in which you select one theory from Modules 4-6 (existential, humanistic, or liberation/feminist theories) to apply to Farzanna’’s psychological concerns. Justify WHY you have picked this particular theory to understand Farzanna’s experience, and not the two others.
  1. As her hypothetical therapist, analyze Farzanna’s psychological experiences of distress and healing using 5 concepts from the theory you have selected. In doing so, define these concepts and explain how they would be useful to understand Farzanna’s psychological concerns.
  1. Briefly touch upon ways that this theory can be applied to help heal Farzanna’s distress.
  1. Make sure to maintain an empathic and compassionate tone towards Farzanna at all times.

I am attaching module powerpoints so you can choose which is best for her and explain why you would not use the other 2, also here is the link to the case: https://youtu.be/2P6ShZrscBs



Module 4: Existential Theory Existential Psychology • What doWhat you do youwantout of want out of your life? your life? Existential Anxiety The basic anxiety that emerges from a person’s endeavors, conscious and unconscious, to cope with the facts of life, the “givens” of existence. The existentialists: View of Human Nature • The inevitability of death • Freedom and responsibility • The search for meaning • Aloneness and relationship 1. The Inevitability of Death • To practice death is to practice freedom • Instead of denying death, acknowledge mortality • Time on earth as precious • Meditating on death to live in the present moment 2. The Freedom to Make Our Lives • ‘Transform ourselves from passive recipients to active agents of the world • From “It happened to me” to “I did this” • From “It’s a busy day”to “I keep myself busy” • Learning to own and author our own lives Pursuing freedom & responsibility through willing 1. Wishing: (dreaming, fantasizing) 2. Willing: (making decisions, taking action) 3. The Search for Meaning • Viktor Frankl: The Holocaust • Choosing our own attitude in the face of adversity • Finding meaning in all parts of our life, including the suffering • “He who has a Why to live for can bear almost any how.” – Nietzche Viktor Frankl: LOGOTHERAPY • THEWILL TOMEANING: The strive to find meaning in life is the primary motivational force in humans. • Psychotherapy: focuses on the meanings to be fulfilled by the patient in his future. • Neurosis/boredom: signs of existential frustration in which will to meaning is frustrated Logotherapy 3 routes to meaning • Creating a work or doing a deed • Experiencing goodness, beauty, truth and love • Turning suffering into a human achievement 4. Existential Isolation – Our Ultimate Aloneness • Interpersonal isolation: disconnected from others • Intrapersonal isolation : disconnected from self • Fusion – desire to merge with others • How to transform loneliness into creative solitude, and seek meaningful relationships with others? Irvin Yalom: Client and therapist as Fellow Travelers Irvin Yalom: Group therapy 1. INSTILLSHOPE 2. GROUP COHESIVENESS 3. CATHARSIS 4.PRINCIPLE OF UNIVERSALITY Module 4: Existential Theory • Rollo May, Viktor Frankl, Irvin Yalom • A philosophical approach to the fundamental givens of human existence • Life and death, freedom and responsibility, meaning, isolation and relationship • Suffering caused by anxiety • Healing comes from confronting anxiety and using it to live an intentionally meaningful life Module 5: Humanistic psychology • Human growth and potential • Self-actualization as ultimate goal of our lives Carl Rogers: person-centered approach • Optimistic view of human beings as inherently good • Focus on human well-being and potential vs. pathology • Every client has a ”self-actualizing tendency” • Client as expert of their own lives, therapist listens and helps empower clients’ journeys Self-actualization: Help a person’s self-image become more congruent with their ideal self. Suffering caused by lack of growth-promoting climate • Humans are shaped by environment but can transcend environment • Necessary social environment in psychotherapy: 1. Genuineness 2. Unconditional positive regard 3. Accurate empathy Accurate Empathy: A definition • “Accurate empathic understanding means that the therapist is completely at home in the universe of the patient. It is a moment-to-moment sensitivity that is in the “here and now,” the immediate present. it is a sensing of the client’s inner world of private personal meanings “as if” it were the therapist’s own, but without ever losing the “as if” quality. Accurate sensitivity to the client’s “being” is of primary value in the moment-to-moment encounter of therapy…. its value would lie in formulating his empathic response to the patient’s immediate living.” • Empathic understanding requires active listening Abraham Maslow: Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualized People • Wisdom, accuracy and depth in their perception of reality • Comfortable with themselves & others • Open, direct, spontaneous, independent, playful, creative • Focus on problems outside themselves (society/world) • Need aloneness and privacy • Establish deep intimate relationships • non-conformists but highly ethical • In touch with spirituality (peak experiences) What is a peak experience? • A special moment when everything seems to fall into place • People transcend the self and are at one with the world • Similar to a religious, or mystical experience • Exuberance, joy, bliss, peace Spirituality and the sacred • Spirit: “animating or vital principle, breath of life” • Elkins: “Spirituality is available to every human being ….is a human phenomenon…..is an inborn, natural potential of the human being….is found at the inner phenomenological level….has to do with our capacity to respond to the numinous…there is a certain mysterious energy associated with spirituality…the aim of spirituality is compassion • The sacred is “characterised by various elements including a feeling of being overwhelmed, a sense of the mystical awe, a feeling of fascination, and an experience of intense energy” The Jonah Complex • the fear of success which prevents self-actualization, or the realization of one’s potential. • The fear of one’s own greatness • The evasion of one’s destiny, • The avoidance of exercising one’s talents. Self-actualization requires courage “Our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate. Our deepest fear is that we are powerful beyond measure. It is our light, not our darkness, that frightens us most. We ask ourselves, ‘Who am I to be brilliant, gorgeous, talented, and famous?’ Actually, who are you not to be? You are a child of God. Your playing small does not serve the world. There is nothing enlightened about shrinking so that people won’t feel insecure around you. We were born to make manifest the glory of God that is within us. It’s not just in some of us; it’s in all of us. And when we let our own light shine, we unconsciously give other people permission to do the same. As we are liberated from our own fear, our presence automatically liberates others.” – Marianne Williamson Module 5: Humanistic Theory • Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow • Focuses on human growth and development • Empathy, positive regard, acceptance, hierarchy of needs • Suffering comes from external and internal blocks to self-actualization • Healing comes from creating optimal conditions for the development of the “selfactualized” person LIBERATION PSYCHOLOGY the political is psychological and the psychological is political LIBERATION PSYCHOLOGY: VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE • Psychological well-being influenced by sociopolitical context • “Psychopathology” as “social pathology:” a sick society inevitability causes suffering for its citizens • Raising critical consciousness (conscientização) of psychological effects of sociopolitical oppression • Oppressed and oppressors joining in solidarity to create a new society STUDYING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF STATE TERRORISM • Ignacio Martin-Baró: Jesuit priest and social psychologist, El Salvador 1970/80s • Government’s armed forces as “terrifying abusive force” that violently imposes “authority” to serve needs of elite • Systemically denying fundamental human rights for majority : the right to shelter, to have a job, to obtain education • El Salvadorans: 87% living in fear, 75% accelerated pulse rate; 64% generalized bodily trembling PSYCHOSOCIAL TRAUMA • Sociopolitical trauma: Sociopolitical oppression as cause of trauma symptoms (vigilance, functional paranoia) • Minority stress theory • Racial trauma • Since trauma is political, healing must take place in the public domain where advocacy and activism can happen LIBERATION PSYCHOLOGY 1. A re-orientation to psychology: • A psychology that caters to the needs of the marginalized, the poor, the oppressed. • The role of the psychologist is not to explain the world but to change it • Psychology as a “force for transformation rather than for conformity to status quo cultural arrangements that contribute to injustice, poverty, violence, and war” LIBERATION PSYCHOLOGY 2. Concientization (critical consciousness) • Awakening of consciousness about the true nature of oppression • Awareness leads to continual discovery and action • Oppressed work to gain consciousness among themselves and then raise consciousness among oppressors LIBERATION PSYCHOLOGY 3. De-ideologizing everyday experience • Rupture “cultures of silence” by dialoguing about oppressive realities • Dismantle the “strangehold” of messages perpetuated by dominant culture • Reclaim knowledge-production from the voices of marginalized community members • Dialogue about every day lived experience LIBERATION PSYCHOLOGY 4. Recovering historical memory • Reclaim the histories of marginalized communities • Study historical legacy of oppression and its effects in present day • Study avenues for empowerment from ancestors LIBERATION PSYCHOLOGY 5. Problematization • Identify concrete problems that exist in oppressed people’s lives • “Limit situations” open possibility for a new way of living • Transform problems into creative solutions towards a more just society 5 AVENUES FOR PRAXIS 1. PSYCHOTHERAPY 2. RESEARCH 3. EMANCIPATORY ARTS 4. DIALOGUE-BUILDING 5. EDUCATION Feminist therapy 1. Therapy for change, not adjustment 2. Self-nurturance and self-esteem 3. Body image and sensuality 4. Affirming diversity 5. Empowerment and social action Hailey Powell University of West Georgia Dr. Nisha Gupta May 23, 2021 Cognitive theory is the most fitting regarding Jodie’s psychological concerns. Cognitive theory pertains to irrational instincts through the thinking process, leading to emotions and behaviors being triggered (Ellis, David, & Lynn, 2010). Irrational instincts are evident in the case of Jodie based on the fact that she has fears of people watching her in the classroom and worrying about her appearance, even if that is not the case, it affects her to the point that that she hides in the bathroom. The fear is so irrational that she had to drop out of school. The rationale behind not selecting behavioral theory is based on the fact that the theory relies on conditioned and learned behavior that I associated with pairing a stimulus that was initially neutral with one that causes a reaction (Spence, 1956). Jodie’s behavior isn’t conditioned or learned; it relies more on her irrational fears triggered by her thought process. Behavioral theory proposes that most behaviors are learned, thus focusing more on nurture rather than nature. The theory states that when the paired neutral stimuli and that which causes a reaction ceases, the association weakens. Additionally, behavioral theory determines a link between a certain behavior and the impact of the said behavior. The theory is more applicable in the context of fears wherein one is exposed to the fear repeatedly, causing a physical anxiety response that takes hyperventilating, trembling, and much more. The rationale behind not selecting the psychoanalytic theory is based on the fact that human beings are naturally following unconscious instincts, motivations, and unexplainable forces from which recovering from events rely on drawing up the unconscious and making it conscious (Elliott, 2015). Jodie’s case does have some unconscious issues, such as the lack of understanding of what triggers these fears, but the issue is more focused on the fact that she tends to overthink issues, thus causing her anxiety. Freud indicated that the symptoms of hysterical behaviors are associated with psychological issues hidden within the unconscious. Concepts on Cognitive Theory Irrational Beliefs Irrational beliefs take three forms: self, others, and the world, but within the context of Jodie, self is the ideal form. Self-irrational belief pertains to the fact that one seeks approval from others. Otherwise, they are inadequate, thus adding more pressure on themselves to attain perfection, which in turn causes anxiety. Fear is evident when she has to mentally prepare herself before making her order when in a restaurant. Additionally, she would think that when people laugh, they are probably laughing at her, among other irrational fears. So basically, within the context of cognitive theory, these thoughts, such as people watching her, triggered anxiety within a social setting because the anxiety is triggered when people are around. Negative Predictions The concept pertains to the fact that something bad shall happen in the future, which applies to the context of Jodie. An illustration is that Jodie prepares in advance before placing an order at the restaurant out of fear that she will mess up doing so in the future when at the restaurant. She doesn’t consider that she could make the order successfully in the future, thus indicating a negative perception. Personalization Personalization pertains to the belief that everything is about oneself, which is applicable in the case of Jodie because she thinks that people are usually laughing when she sees people laughing in a corner, yet there is a high likelihood that isn’t the case. Additionally, Jodie thinks that when she is in a classroom, everyone is watching her and making her the focus of attention. Overgeneralization Overgeneralization pertains to placing one scenario within the context of every day of their lives and that every similar scenario shall occur within the same context. Given that Jodie has had anxiety attacks when in a public setting, she assumes that shall take place as well in every public setting. An illustration is that she dropped out of school and avoided spending time with her best friends or any other social event out of fear of another panic attack rather than isolating every event individually and working through the anxiety. Thoughts Triggering Emotions Cognitive theory denotes that the thoughts that people have regarding themselves can trigger emotions such as anxiety. Therefore, given that Jodie has thoughts regarding the fact that she is unappealing when in a public setting causes her anxiety to occur, thus her not having discomfort when in a public setting. Means of Using Cognitive Theory to Heal Jodie Schema Therapy Schema therapy demands the discovery of the root cause of the anxiety through analysis of the experience by forming a better comprehension of those incidences (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar 2006). Within the context of Jodie, there must have been an experience that gradually pushed her anxiety to the state that it was. An example is that she worries excessively about her appearance being on the negative side while also thinking that people are laughing at her. These behaviors are an indication of low self-esteem, which was made aware by implanted thought of unattractiveness. Additionally, Jodie fears not being liked by people or saying the wrong thing, which indicates that something happened in the past to make her think that she isn’t likable and that she constantly messes up. Through understanding what triggered these thoughts and giving them a new perspective, Jodie would be capable of combating her social anxiety regarding her physical appearance when among people or the fear of messing up even when placing an order. An example of a new perspective would entail that she was young and normal and that multiple people share the same experience at that age, and they work through those issues in order to continue living their lives. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy The theory pertains to the fact that people need to understand their self-talk to control it properly, which aims to elevate rational thinking (Dryden, 2005). This form of therapy encourages tolerant thoughts regarding oneself rather than thoughts that focus more on the mistakes and flows that one possesses. Within the context of Jodie, she has a lot of negative thoughts regarding herself, which she encourages, so through this form of therapy, such thoughts shall be identified and controlled. Therefore, Jodie would have to gain awareness of the good things about herself and encourage such thoughts instead, thus decreasing negative thoughts and beliefs regarding herself, thus leading to the decline of her social anxiety. References Dryden, W. (2005). Rational emotive behavior therapy. In Encyclopedia of cognitive behavior therapy (pp. 321-324). Springer, Boston, MA. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F0-306- 48581-8_90 Elliott, A. (2015). Psychoanalytic theory: An introduction. Macmillan International Higher Education. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=_VRoCgAAQBAJ &oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=psychoanalytic+theory+&ots=3EVXJIWMM&sig=KMRUoWOZPr6uQ_rEq3Eb1nX2Rg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=psychoanalytic%20theory&f=false Ellis, A., David, D., & Lynn, S. J. (2010). Rational and irrational beliefs: A historical and conceptual perspective. Rational and irrational beliefs: Research, theory, and clinical practice, 3-22. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=bxxnDAAAQBAJ& oi=fnd&pg=PA3&dq=Cognitive+theory+irrational+beliefs&ots=gERYnw3yDJ&sig=0D4_C5im9gASwHJIQbLLeu mX_bA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Cognitive%20theory%20irrational%20beliefs&f=false Hodgeson, J. (2015). Living with Social Anxiety. YouTube.Retrieved from: https://youtu.be/N02701HDP9g Spence, K. W. (1956). Behavior theory and conditioning.Retrieved from: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2004-16334-000 Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2006). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. guilford press. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=1x7TDwAAQBAJ &oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Schema+Therapy+&ots=PrOkPyIGM&sig=81Jqp65HkozLU1OJuIBIKw_fcw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Schema%20Therap y&f=false …
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