What is the ratio of praise to constructive statements in each video?

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Supervision Sessions Best Practice

Interactions between supervisors and supervisees should be carefully considered in order to foster a positive work environment that encourages high compliance with the delivery of treatment plans. In this assignment, you will consider how to effectively deliver feedback during supervision sessions between a supervisor and a supervisee in order to increase the likelihood of improved performance.

Review the three supervision videos in this unit’s Supervision Feedback media presentation. Then complete the following:

  • Describe the interactions observed in all three videos.
    • What is the ratio of praise to constructive statements in each video?
  • Research best practices related to supervision feedback. Summarize the main conclusions of the research.
  • Evaluate the interactions in each video.
    • How did what you observed in each of the videos compare to best practice techniques in the OBM literature on feedback (hint: think about Daniels’s 4:1 ratio).
    • What worked well in the interactions?
    • What did not work well in the interactions?
    • Which video do you believe would be most likely to improve the supervisee’s performance?

ASSIGNMENT REQUIREMENTS

  • Written communication: Should be free of errors that detract from the overall message.
  • APA formatting: References and citations are formatted according to current APA style guidelines.
  • Resources: At least 3 scholarly or professional resources.
  • Length: 2–3 double-spaced pages, excluding title page and list of references.
  • Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12-point.

See attachment of videos ( its a transcript of the 3 videos w/answers)

 

UNFORMATTED ATTACHMENT PREVIEW

Supervision Feedback Introduction The responsibilities of being a BCBA frequently include supervising BCaBAs or RBTs. In order to help these professionals to improve their skills and treatment strategies (and maintain treatment integrity), a supervisor must be willing to give honest and frequent feedback on performance. But honest and frequent feedback is not the only quality of good supervisory feedback. There are ways to deliver feedback that enable the supervisee to improve, and there are ways that do not. In this activity, you will see the difference. Feedback Session Earlier today, an RBT named Molani conducted a session with his four-year-old client, Theo. During this session, Molani was working on teaching Theo some different mands and tacts, both in the natural environment and some contrived situations. His supervisor, Cynthia, was there, observing the session. Watch each of the following three videos of Cynthia giving feedback to Molani. Observe the differences between the different feedback sessions. After each video, you will answer questions about it; after you have watched all three videos, you will answer questions about all of them. Feedback (Version 1) Feedback (Version 1) A supervisor and supervisee sit at a desk. The supervisor smiles and makes good eye contact. She leaves short pauses to let the supervisee reflect. She behaves in a manner that is supportive but professional. She delivers the corrective feedback with a supportive but direct tone. Cynthia: Hello, Molani. Can you believe the heat today? It is a hot one outside! I hope you have some plans this weekend that involve water or air conditioning. Molani: It is a hot one! Spring just flew by. Cynthia: Agreed! That happens every year. (pause) Well, first, I want to thank you for the opportunity to sit in on your session. It was great to see the strong rapport you have developed with Theo. It seems you have already started to establish yourself as a reinforcer, and I’m sure that makes the session more enjoyable for both of you. Molani: Thank you! I did focus in our first few sessions on pairing myself with some of his favorites, the iPad and jumping around. It seems to have been effective, because he seems eager to learn and follow directions when I arrive. Do you have any other feedback for me regarding the session? Is there anything else I could do to improve? Cynthia: Thanks for asking. I do have some thoughts. Let me start with the things I definitely want to see you continue to do. For one, you are doing a fantastic job with the delivery of reinforcement. You deliver the reinforcer quickly and your praise is always enthusiastic and specific. However, while we’re on the topic of reinforcement, I was wondering: Do you think that Theo might benefit from having even more choices for reinforcers to ensure satiation does not occur? Molani: Yes, that would be great. I probably could pause a few times during the session to bring a few more potential reinforcers into the room, and ask Theo to choose something else. Thanks for the tip! Cynthia: I think that would be a great idea. I’ll also talk with Theo’s mom to see if there are any other items we’re not using in our sessions that could potentially function as reinforcers. It may be time for a new preference assessment. Molani: Yes, that would be helpful, I think. Cynthia: I also really liked how you used Theo’s mand for paint as an opportunity to create an EO for the paint brush. You were quick to put the paint brush out of his arm’s reach and create an opportunity for him to ask for it. That was quick thinking and it was neat to see him mand so quickly for the brush. Molani: Thank you! Cynthia: There were a few other occasions during your session that would be great opportunities to evoke more vocalizations or choice making. For example, Theo mentioned he was thirsty, which was great. But you could have also provided him some choices of cup colors to drink from, rather than just giving him the nearest cup. Molani: That is a great idea. I will definitely brainstorm more ways I can do that in my session. Cynthia: Overall, you are doing a great job with Theo. I’m so happy to see the data you’re gathering, which indicate he is making good progress. His mand and tacting repertoires have definitely increased. Remember, you can always reach out to me if you have any additional questions, and I welcome any input you may have to improve these sessions and Theo’s learning. Molani: Thanks! I look forward to seeing you again soon. When Cynthia (the BCBA) is providing feedback to Molani (the RBT), what is the estimated ratio of reinforcing statements to constructive comments during this session? (Remember that reinforcing statements let the RBT know what he or she is doing well and to keep doing it, while constructive comments may be considered punishing and are intended to let the RBT know what he could be improving on.) a. At least 4:1 (Praise:Constructive) Feedback: The supervisor provided several comments that aimed to reinforce what the supervisee was doing correctly while still providing feedback that gave the RBT an opportunity to improve on his performance. b. 10:0 (Praise:Constructive) Feedback: The BCBA delivers at least one constructive feedback comment. For example, “You could have provide more opportunities…” c. 0:10 (Praise:Constructive) Feedback: The BCBA delivers at least one comment that would be considered praise. For example, “I like the way you…” d. 0:5 (Praise:Constructive) Feedback: The BCBA delivers at least one comment that would be considered praise. For example, “I like the way you…” Your answer is a. The correct answer is a. Which description below best captures Cynthia’s feedback to Molani? a. Primarily negative. Feedback: There were several comments that would be considered positive and potentially reinforcing. b. General and incomplete. Feedback: Most of Cynthia’s feedback included specific examples of what she saw during the session, and let Molani know exactly what she liked or how he could improve. c. Specific and detailed. Feedback: Most of Cynthia’s feedback included specific examples of what she saw during the session, and let Molani know exactly what she liked or how he could improve. d. Does not include any constructive comments. Feedback: There were some comments about areas for improvement and suggestions for how to achieve them. Your answer is b. The correct answer is c. What phrase below best characterizes the feedback delivered? a. 4:1 ratio. Feedback: The feedback provided had the ideal ratio of at least four reinforcing statements for every constructive or punishing statement. b. Negative focused. Feedback: The feedback given was not mostly negative. c. Ineffective. Feedback: The feedback given may be effective in improving Molani’s performance. d. The Sandwich Method. Feedback: With the sandwich method, a praise statement is provided, followed by a constructive statement, followed by a praise statement. Cynthia did not alternate praise and constructive statements. Your answer is c. The correct answer is a. When working on supervision toward national certification, in addition to supervision sessions that include feedback as you see in this video, what else may be included in a good supervision session? a. A more authoritarian tone when delivering the feedback. Feedback: An authoritarian tone is not needed when delivering feedback. b. Modeling the desired behavior for the supervisee. Feedback: This is true, but another answer is also correct. Modeling is part of the behavioral skills training approach and is a helpful tool for showing someone what to do. c. Providing feedback directly during the session so corrections can be made immediately. Feedback: This is true but another answer is also correct. Providing feedback during a session may be included in a good supervision session. d. Both B and C. e. All of the above. Feedback: Both modeling and providing feedback during sessions might be included in a good supervision session. Your answer is a. The correct answer is d. Before providing feedback on the session, Cynthia discusses the weather with Molani. What is this known as? a. Delivering reinforcers. Feedback: This activity may or may not be reinforcing. b. A waste of time. Feedback: There may be some individuals who prefer to skip small talk. However, for most individuals, engaging in some small talk may help identify common ground and help establish a more trusting relationship between the supervisor and supervisee. c. Treatment drift. Feedback: This relates to treatment, not supervision, and takes place when the treatment is implemented differently from the written or original protocol. d. Building rapport. Feedback: By discussing less charged matters than Molani’s performance, Cynthia attempts to put him at his ease and build rapport. Your answer is d. The correct answer is d. Feedback (Version 2) Feedback (Version 2) The supervisor looks a bit uncomfortable, and does not make eye contact as much. She appears a bit distracted or nervous. Cynthia: I’d like to discuss your performance in your session with Theo today. Molani: Great! I look forward to your feedback. Cynthia: Glad to hear. I do like how you appear to have a good rapport with Theo. However, I felt you could have provided more opportunities for manding and tacting. You did do a good job with reinforcement delivery. Molani: Well, thank you. Is there anything else you would like me to work on or continue? Cynthia: I like your relaxed demeanor with Theo. I also like how you allowed natural manding opportunities. I think you could possibly do more to contrive EOs to evoke more manding. Molani: Great, I can brainstorm more on how to do that. Cynthia: Well, I appreciate your efforts. Based on my observations today and what Theo’s mom has said, his skills seem to be improving. Please keep up the good work! Molani: Thanks again. Look forward to seeing you again. How did the feedback in this video differ from Version 1? a. The feedback was more specific in this video. Feedback: The feedback here was not as specific, and Cynthia used fewer examples to support the feedback. b. The feedback was more general in this video. c. There was no difference between the feedback in this video and the first one. Feedback: The feedback was more general and less specific in this video. d. None of the above. Feedback: The feedback was more general and less specific in this video. Your answer is c. The correct answer is b. When Cynthia was providing suggestions for improvement in this video, what could she have done to help Molani incorporate her suggestions? a. She could have said it in a more direct tone. Feedback: This would not necessarily have made the feedback more effective. b. She could have provided examples of what she was asking Molani to do. c. She could have given a general rating of how she felt about the session. Feedback: This would not have improved Molani’s understanding of what specific things he needed to do in order to improve. d. None of the above. Feedback: By giving examples of what she was asking Molani to do, Cynthia could have made her feedback more effective. Your answer is b. The correct answer is b. Feedback (Version 3) Feedback (Version 3) The supervisor is kind in demeanor but somewhat frazzled or disengaged. Cynthia: Thanks for taking the time to meet with me, Molani. I’d like to chat about your session with Theo. Molani: Sounds good. Cynthia: I noticed that you missed several opportunities to provide choices during the session. I would like to see you offer more opportunities for choices. Molani: I can absolutely do that. Do you have a specific interval of time in which I should be offering choices, or a certain number of times I should shoot for in a session? Cynthia: Not really, please just do it more, and whenever you think it is needed. Molani: Great, thanks. Is there anything else I could be doing to improve our session? Cynthia: Yes, I think you could also contrive more EOs. Molani: Okay. Thanks for this feedback. Cynthia: You are welcome. See you next week. When Cynthia is providing feedback to Molani, what is the estimated ratio of reinforcing statements to constructive comments during this session? a. 1:2 (Praise:Constructive) b. 10:0 (Praise:Constructive) Feedback: The only comment that could be considered reinforcing was the comment in which Cynthia thanked Molani for taking the time to meet. c. 5:10 (Praise:Constructive) Feedback: The only comment that could be considered reinforcing was the comment in which the BCBA thanked the RBT for taking the time to meet. d. Over 4:1 (Praise:Constructive) Feedback: The only comment that could be considered reinforcing was the comment in which Cynthia thanked Molani for taking the time to meet. Your answer is a. The correct answer is a. What is an appropriate example of how Cynthia could have provided more specific feedback to Molani when delivering suggestions for improvement? a. You could do more during your session. Feedback: This is very general (more) and does not provide specific feedback on Molani’s actions. b. You could contrive more opportunities for EOs. For example, after Theo ate those pretzels, you could ensure that drinks are out of reach for Theo. This may create an EO for him to mand for a drink. c. You could do a better job motivating Theo for things during the session. Feedback: This is very general (do a better job, things) and does not provide specific feedback on Molani’s actions. Your answer is b. The correct answer is b. What are some areas in this session where Cynthia’s supervision feedback could be improved? a. Cynthia could provide more praise statements confirming what Molani did correctly. Feedback: This is a good area for improvement, but Cynthia could also have provided more specific feedback or role-played what she wanted Molani to do during sessions. b. Cynthia could provide more specific feedback regarding what Molani could do to improve. Feedback: This is a good area for improvement, but Cynthia could also have provided more praise statements or role-played what she wanted Molani to do during sessions. c. Cynthia could talk more about her personal life. Feedback: Talking about her personal life would be unlikely to improve Cynthia’s feedback. d. Cynthia could role play what she wants to see Molani do during the session. Feedback: This is a good area for improvement, but Cynthia could also have provided more praise statements or more specific feedback regarding what Molani could do to improve. e. All of the above. Feedback: While A, B, and D are good suggestions, talking about her personal life would be unlikely to improve Cynthia’s feedback. f. A, B, and D. Your answer is c. The correct answer is f. What could happen if a supervisor does not deliver any reinforcement for a supervisee’s good work performance, and instead only delivers punishing statements regarding what was done poorly or wrong? a. The supervisee may not continue to exhibit desired workplace performance. Feedback: It is correct that without reinforcing good performance, a supervisor does not encourage a supervisee to continue that performance. But the supervisee may also begin to experience supervision as a conditioned punisher, because he or she has paired supervision with punishing statements. b. The supervisor may become a conditioned punisher, because the experience supervision becomes paired with punishing statements. Feedback: It is correct that if a supervisee expects only punishing statements from his or her supervisor, that supervisor may become associated with punishing statements. But the supervisee is also not encouraged to continue good performance if it is not reinforced. c. The supervisee may take the supervisor more seriously and realize they mean business. Feedback: Punishing statements are not a good way to communicate that the supervisor is serious about supervision. However, reinforcing statements encourage good performance and prevent the supervisee from pairing supervision with (only) punishing statements. d. All of the above. Feedback: Punishing statements are not a good way to communicate that the supervisor is serious about supervision. However, reinforcing statements encourage good performance and prevent the supervisee from pairing supervision with (only) punishing statements. e. A and B. Feedback: In the absence of reinforcing statements for good performance, the supervisee may not continue good performance and may begin to associate supervision with punishing statements. Your answer is e. The correct answer is e. Feedback (All Videos) Feedback (All Videos) What is one of the effective aspects of feedback that is absent in all of these feedback sessions? a. Punishing feedback. Feedback: Some of Cynthia’s statements could be interpreted as punishing. The feedback that is missing is graphical. b. Verbal feedback. Feedback: Verbal feedback is included in each of these examples. The feedback that is missing is graphical. c. Graphical feedback. Your answer is c. The correct answer is c. How is graphical feedback more effective than verbal feedback? a. Graphical feedback allows one to see progress more easily. Feedback: This is correct, but graphical feedback also allows quicker response to performance changes and more immediate delivery of reinforcement. b. Graphical feedback allows you to respond more quickly to performance changes. Feedback: This is correct, but graphical feedback also allows one to see progress more easily and to deliver reinforcement more immediately. c. Graphed data may allow you to deliver reinforcement more immediately. Feedback: This is correct, but graphical feedback allows one to see progress more easily and respond to performance changes more quickly. d. All of the above. Your answer is d. The correct answer is d. Which video do you think provides the best example of how feedback should be delivered? a. Video 1. b. Video 2. Feedback: Video 1 offers the best example of how feedback should be delivered. Cynthia’s feedback was specific and detailed, she made an effort to build rapport, and she delivered a proper ratio of praise statements to corrective statements. c. Video 3. Feedback: Video 1 offers the best example of how feedback should be delivered. Cynthia’s feedback was specific and detailed, she made an effort to build rapport, and she delivered a proper ratio of praise statements to corrective statements. Your answer is a. The correct answer is a. Which video do you think provides the worst example of how feedback should be delivered? a. Video 1 Feedback: This video is the best example of how feedback may be delivered. b. Video 2 Feedback: This video example had some areas for improvement, but there was another example that was worse. c. Video 3 Feedback: Cynthia’s feedback was vague, with no examples to support her corrective statements, and contained almost no reinforcing statements. Your answer is c. The correct answer is c. In OBM literature, what is the frequency of performance feedback that is most often used and studied? a. Daily feedback. b. Monthly feedback. Feedback: The frequency of performance feedback that is most often used and studied is provided more regularly than monthly. c. Weekly feedback. Feedback: The frequency of performance feedback that is most often used and studied is provided more regularly than weekly. d. None of the above. Feedback: Daily feedback is most often used and studied in OBM literature. Your answer is b. The correct answer is a. What is the ratio of reinforcement to punishment that Daniels recommends? a. 1:8 Feedback: Daniels recommends providing more reinforcement than punishment, which this ratio does not suggest. b. 10:1 Feedback: The ratio is lower than this …
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