What is the “Goodness of Fit Model?” 5. How do different cultures educate their children. Please give me an example of this. 6. Talk about the term ENCULTURATION and what it means to you. 7.

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There are 10 questions on this midterm-two per chapter from your study guides! Please answer the question to the best of your ability, in a Microsoft document, and email it back to me by week #5

Each question should be in written format/typed and at least a paragraph long unless otherwise stated.

Remember no late papers please no late papers.

PLEASE ANSWER IN DETAILS!!!! No one sentence answers!



This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA-NC Study Guide for Enculturation: Chapter 3: Socialization, enculturation, socialization and enculturation agents, Bronfenbrenners Ecological System theory, parental ethnotheories, The Global Parenting styles (know all four), postfigurative culture, cofigurative culture, prefigurative culture and cyberbullying. This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND Bronfenbrenners Ecological Systems theory above: An Introduction to Culture and Psychology. Chapter 1. Is what we know in mainstream Psychology applicable for most people in the world? (pages2-3) – Why is asking this question important? All we have to do is to see how rapidly the world is changing and how we work, live and play, and interact with people from different cultures. Think about just a century ago, in 1904: – The average life expectancy in the US was 47 years. – Only 14% of home is the US had bathtubs!  Continued……(pages 203) Textbook: – The maximum speed limit in most cities was 10 miles per hour. – Sugar cost 4 cents a pound, eggs were 14 cents a dozen and coffee cost 15 cents per pound. – One in ten US adults could not read or write. – Only 6% of Americans had graduated high school. – Marijuana, herion and morphine were all available over the counter! Our world is changing at a very rapid rate. And one of the most important ways in which it is changing is in terms of cultural diversity. (page 3-textbook). – Cultural diversity and intercultural relations are some of our biggest challenges. These challenges are also our biggest opportunities. If we meet these challenges and leverage them, we can achieve a potential in diversity and intercultural relations that will result in far more than the sum of the individual components that comprise that diverse universe. The sum will result in personal growth for many individuals! This book was written with this belief-to meet the challenge of cultural diversity and turn the challenges into opportunity. What is Cultural Psychology? This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA What is Cultural Psychology? – Psychology as a discipline is well equipped to meet the challenge of cultural diversity. One of the ways the field of psychology has met this challenge is by recognizing the large impact culture has on psychological processes and human behavior. In the past few decades, the field of CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY has emerged. This is a subdiscipline of psychology that examines the cultural foundations and psychological processes and human behavior, Two Main Goals of Psychology: – There are two main goals in the field of Psychology: – 1. The first is to build a body of knowledge about people. – 2, It allows others to take that body of knowledge and apply it to intervene in peoples lives to help improve those lives. Psychologists achieve this in many ways: as therapist, counselors, trainers, and consultants! (figure 1.1 page 8) Culture and Psychology (pages 4-6): – Most research on mainstream psychology on human behavior comes from studies conducted in the US involving American University students. Considering these studies comprise a very small fraction of the world population (Around 5%) some scholars have obviously questioned the application of the findings! They suggest that the field is based on Western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic culture and severely limited. They term this WEIRDOS! What is Cross-Cultural Research? (page 5) – Cross Cultural Research involves participants of differing cultural backgrounds and allows comparisons of finding across different cultures.(Definition of Cross Cultural Research) Traditionally it involves research on human behavior that compares psychological processes between two or more people. In our textbook, we also incorporate knowledge contrasting human cultures vrs. nonhuman animal cultures. (further reading on this on page 6 of your textbook)! Cross Cultural Research can be understood as a matter of scientific philosophy! The Contribution of the Study of Culture on Psychological Truths: (Pages 6-7) – The contribution that cultural psychology and cross -cultural research makes to psychology as a whole goes beyond scientific methodological changes in the studies. It is a way of understanding principles about human behavior within a global perspective. Cross Cultural research has two components to it: – 1. Universal: A psychological process that is found to be true or specific for all people of all cultures. – 2. Culture Specific: A psychological process that is considered to be true for some people of some cultures, but not for others. (Know these two terms please). Practicing Psychology With A Cultural Perspective: (Page 7) – Practicing Psychology with a cultural perspective is an exercise in critical thinking. Is what we know true for all people regardless of their cultural backgrounds? Why do cultures produce differences? The past two decades, cultural psychology has had a huge impact on the field of psychology. The number of research article incorporating different of different cultures has increased tremendously in mainstream journal articles such ass Journal of Personality and Social psychology and Developmental Psychology and Psychological Science. You will find this out when you start on your own research paper and other papers in this class! What is Culture? And Where Does It Come From? (Pages 7-15) – Culture is defined on page 8 of our textbook as the following: “A unique meaning and information system, shared by a group and transmitted across generations, that allows the group to meet basic needs of survival, pursue happiness and well-being, and derive meaning from life.” Think about culture……How does your culture transmit ideas and norms cross generations? How does your culture transmit ideas across generations? Where does Culture come from? (Pages 8-15) – Humans are social animals and have always lived in groups. We learned hundreds of thousands of years ago, that living in groups is much better than living alone. This is probably why so many of us are having such a hard time social distancing from people right now. Living in groups increased chances for survival thousands of years ago and division of labor allows for accomplishing more in a shorter time. There is a downside however, living in groups can also cause chaos because people are different! (Figure 1.1 page 8) Environment and Resources: (pages 9-10) – Groups live in different environments, right? The ecology of these environments have a huge impact on how they live. One aspect of ecology that influences cultures is climate. Some areas of the world such as Korea or New York have very harsh winters, while other areas such as here in Savannah or the Southern US have mostly hot summers and mild winters mostly. More important to culture than the absolute temperature of an area is the “DEVIATION FROM TEMPERATURE CLIMATE:” This is the degree to which an average temperature of a given region will differ from what is considered to be relatively easiest temperature to live in, which is about 22C or 72 degrees! Population Density and Arable Land: (page 9): – Another ecological factor is the “Population Density:” The number of people living within a given unit of space. In a place like a city, where a lot of people live in a relatively small space, the population density is higher than in a rural area where fewer people live in a similar amount of space. Arable Land is defined in our textbook as “The type of land that can sustain life by food production of some sort.” Types of food can be linked to cultural differences as well. The Types f food we eat are linked to our cultures! This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND Resources: (page 10) – Another source of culture is resources. Resources can be natural, such as the presence of water or absence of water to grow food and vegetables or raise animals. A land void of natural resources may encourage teamwork and a sense of community spirit among its members. Thus, the combination of the environment (Climate, population density, arable land and resources are some of the most important factors to contribute to culture. Other things to know from Chapter 1! – Look at page 11! It discusses a psychological tool kit. This is: A set of basic psychological skills and abilities that people can use to meet their needs.” These include cognitive abilities such as language and problem solving, emotions and personality traits. Read further on this on pages 11-15. Look at Table 1.2 on page 11 of your textbook to understand this concept better! What is Shared Intentionality and The Rachet Effect? (pgs 12-13). – Shared Intentionality is the following: “knowledge about motivations concerning behaviors that are common among people in a group.” An example of this would be language. – The Rachet Effect is the following: “The concept that humans continually improve on improvements, that they do not go backwards or revert to a previous state.” Progress occurs because improvements move themselves upward like a rachet. Someone in class please give me an example of this? ☺ Look on page 14 figure 1.3 for a functional understanding of culture please. Also, is Culture a Uniquely Human Prodcut? – Do you guys think that culture is just a human experience? This is not necessarily so. Animals have many characteristics of human cultural life. For example: Many animals are social, they work and live in groups. In animal societies there are clear social networks and hierarchies. Many animals invent and use tools. Many animals also communicate with each other. Interesting, isn’t it? Read further in Chapter One about: Culture and Nationality, Culture and Language, Culture and Ethnicity, Culture and gender, Culture and Disability and Culture and Sexual Orientation: (Pages 17-21) – Now, look at Figure 1.4 on page 12. It discusses the Subjective values of Culture. These are Values, Beliefs, Norms, Attitudes and worldviews. These are all defined on pages 22-25. Please make a note and write down the definitions for these on your study guide for chapter 1. Okay-Lots of information, right? Two more things to know, then we are done! – Who can tell me what the word “ENCULTURATION means? This is looked at on page 27 of our textbook: It means the process by which individuals learn and adapt the ways and manners of their specific culture.” Someone please give me an example of this now! This process gradually shapes and molds the individuals psychological characteristics. Also, the term Attributions is defined on page 29: This is beliefs about the underlying causes of behavior.” Finally know the terms Etics and Emics on pages 29 – 30. Exercise for Chapter 1: – What are some of the values, beliefs, norms and worldviews that are important to you. Do you have any sacred values? What about values, beliefs, norms and worldviews of your friends, spouses or classmates? Think about this a minute and we will have a discussion about this. Please raise your hand so everyone isn’t talking all at once! What are some of your values, beliefs and norms? This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY STUDY GUYIDE FOR CHAPTER 1: – 1. What are some goals of Psychology and Cultural Psychology? – 2. Know what Cross Cultural Research means. – 3. Know the terms: Universal and Culture Specific. – 4. What is Culture? – 5. Know where Culture comes from? – 6. Know the terms: Deviation from temperate climate, population density and arable land. – 7. What is a Universal Psychological Toolkit? – 8. What is “The Rachet Effect” and “Shared Intentionality?” – 9. Be able to discuss the Functional Understanding of Culture. – 10. Is culture only shared by Humans? – 11. Know about the Subjective Elements of Culture. – 12. What are Sacred Values, beliefs, norms, religions attitudes and worldviews. YOU CAN DO IT!!!!!!!!!!!!! Moore .,MA.,LPC This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA-NC Prof. Study Guide for Chapter Continued: – 13. Be able to discuss the process of enculturation. – 14.Know the following terms: Attributions and Etics and Emics. – Remember, the midterm will be open book. I suggest you keep up with the study guides each week and the reading, then you will have everything you need for the midterm. It will cover Chapters 1-6. You all are doing a great job. Hang in there and be healthy! Chapter 5 Study Guide for Midterm: Culture, Self, and Identity: Self-concept, independent construal of self, interdependent structural of self, self -esteem, selfenhancement, terror management theory, selfeffacement, better than average effect, mutual self enhancement, tactical self enhancement, All terms listed on page 121, Culture frame switching, cultural reaffirmation effect. Prof. Moore., MA., LPC Adjunct Faculty/Saint Leo University PSY339/Midterm over Chapters 1-5. This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA-NC Instructions: There are 10 questions on this midterm-two per chapte,r from your study guides! Please answer the question to the best of your ability, in a Microsoft document, and email it back to me by week #5 at: Lysbeth.cooke@saintleo.edu. Each question should be in written format/typed and at least a paragraph long unless otherwise stated. Remember no late papers please! 1.What are some goals of Psychology and also Cultural Psychology? 2. Please discuss Brofenbrenners Ecological System Theor,y in two paragraphs. 3. Please talk about the concept of “interdependent structure of self”. 4. What is the “Goodness of Fit Model?” 5. How do different cultures educate their children. Please give me an example of this. 6. Talk about the term ENCULTURATION and what it means to you. 7. Please discuss Jean Piagets Cognitive Development Theory and explain the different stages and what occurs in each stage. 8. Define the terms self concept and self esteem. How are they the same and how are they different. 9. What are the four global parenting styles? 10. Is culture shared only by humans? Also, where does culture come from? Please respond to all ten questions! Please check your spelling and grammar before sending. This midterm is due back week 5 to: Lysbeth.cooke@saintleo.edu. …
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