This chapter would not be complete without considering the politics surrounding medical care and the difficulties of passing major health care reform. The concerns of civil liberties and national security are addressed as well, and we end the chapter pointing out that the state is a racial state and clearly influences our immigration policy

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Midterm 2: Optional Paper Political Sociology There is an option to submit a 2,500 word research paper instead of writing the second midterm for this course. In this paper, you will write about one of the four topics: 1. 2. 3. 4. Political Economy Social Movements Social Relations Police and Military You will be given free rein to explore your interests, as long as you relate your paper to the course material. If you have any concerns about your research question/thesis statement, feel free to contact the professor or the TAs for additional guidance. If you need help on how to write an essay or evaluate online sources, please refer to the guidelines that can be found at the end of the course syllabus. The assignment will be due Monday, May 31st at 4:00pm EST. Your paper should adhere to the following specifications: 1. Minimally 2,500 words, maximally 3,500 words. Not adhering to this word limit will result in being deducted by a single letter grade (e.g. from B+ to B). 2. Minimally 10 scholarly, peer-reviewed sources dated no earlier than 2010. 3. Must cite all non-original sources correctly as per APA style. 4. DO NOT use non-scholarly sources including, but not limited to: dictionaries, encyclopedias, web-based sources that are not scholarly books or journals*, newspapers and popular magazines, etc. Points will be reduced if you do. 5. Remember that this assignment is worth 25% of your final grade. It will ONLY replace the midterm exam if you submit it before the start of the midterm. As such, the deadline is absolutely firm. *For more information on what constitutes a scholarly, peer-reviewed source, please consult and feel free to use the University library search engine. POWER, POLITICS, AND SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY Betty A. Dobratz Iowa State University Lisa K. Waldner University of St. Thomas Timothy Buzzell Baker University First published 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. Published 2016 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017, USA Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business Copyright © 2012 Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Credits appear on Page 383, which constitutes an extension of the copyright page. ISBN: 9780205486298 (pbk) Cover Designer: Karen Salzbach Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Dobratz, Betty A. Power, politics, and society: an introduction to political sociology / Betty A. Dobratz, Lisa K. Waldner, Timothy Buzzell. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-205-48629-8 (alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-205-48629-0 (alk. paper) 1. Political sociology. I. Waldner, Lisa K. II. Buzzell, Tim. III. Title. JA76.D598 2012 306.2—dc22 2010052422 Please visit the companion website at CONTENTS Preface x Chapter 1 POWER 1 Power: The Key Concept in Political Sociology 2 Metaphors and Paradoxes: Sociological Tools in the Study of Power 3 Metaphors of Power Arrangements 5 The Conceptualization of Power in Political Sociology 10 Pluralist 11 Elite/Managerial 14 Social Class and Politics 17 Criticisms of the Class Perspective 22 The Traditional Frameworks Today 22 New Directions after the Traditional Frameworks 24 Conclusion 31 References 34 Chapter 2 ROLE OF THE STATE 36 What is the Modern Nation-State? 37 Defining the State 37 Emergence of States 38 Differentiating Government from the State 40 Features of Stateness 43 Differentiating Nation and State 43 Emergence of Nations 45 Different Forms of the Nation-State 47 Democracy 47 Democracy and Undemocratic Practices 48 Undemocratic State Forms 49 Theoretical Views on the State 51 Pluralism 52 Elite Views of the State 53 Class-Based Views of the State 55 Updated Marxist Theories of the State 57 State-Centric 59 Political Institutional or Institutionalist 60 Other Emerging Views of the State 62 Rational Choice 62 Postmodern 62 The Welfare State 63 Types of Welfare States 63 Role of Race and Gender 64 Future of the State 65 iii iv Contents Conclusion 66 Endnotes 66 References 67 Chapter 3 POLITICS, CULTURE, AND SOCIAL PROCESSES 71 Culture and Politics 72 Politics, Culture, and Theoretical Frameworks 74 Pluralist 74 Elite/Managerial 75 Class Perspective 77 Rational Choice 78 Institutionalist 79 Postmodern 81 Political Socialization 82 Political Values 86 The Shift from Materialist to Post-Materialist Values 87 Inkeles and the Modern Personality 89 Religion and Political Values 90 Ideology, Beliefs, and Public Opinion 92 The Faces of Ideology 92 Political Culture and Media 97 Media and Political Knowledge 99 Media and Political Values 101 Media and Political Symbols 103 Political Culture and Place 104 Political Subcultures 104 Nationalism 106 Conclusion 109 References 109 Chapter 4 THE POLITICS OF EVERYDAY LIFE: POLITICAL ECONOMY 114 Capitalism and Democracy 116 Theoretical Frameworks 117 Pluralist 117 Elite/Managerial 117 Class/Marxist 118 Postmodern 118 Rational Choice 118 Institutionalist 120 Class-Domination Theory of Power 120 Wall Street versus Main Street 121 Middle Class 124 Taxation 126 Individual Taxes 127 Corporate Taxation 129 International Comparison Regarding Taxation 129 Summary 130 Contents The Welfare State 130 Corporate Welfare 130 Social Security 131 Public Assistance 132 Debt and Bankruptcy 135 Household Debt and Bankruptcy 136 Who Goes Bankrupt and Why? 137 Infrastructure 139 Bridges 143 Levees 144 Conclusion 146 Endnotes 147 References 147 Chapter 5 THE POLITICS OF EVERYDAY LIFE: SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIAL RELATIONS 152 Education 153 No Child Left Behind 154 Marriage and Family 156 Family Law 158 Same-Sex Marriage 160 Health Care 167 Theoretical Frameworks 167 U.S. Health Care Uniqueness 169 Civil Liberties 170 Twenty-First Century: War on Terror 173 Race and Ethnic Relations and the Racial State 174 The Frameworks 174 Explaining the Racial State 175 Color-Blind Policies 176 Racial Identity and Equality 176 Environmental and Natural Disasters 176 Immigration: A Major Ethnic and Racial Issue Facing the United States 177 Conclusion 182 Endnotes 183 References 183 Chapter 6 POLITICAL PARTICIPATION 189 Political Participation as Power 189 Theoretical Frameworks 192 Pluralist 192 Elite/Managerial 195 Class 197 Rational Choice 198 Postmodern 199 Political Participation and Its Many Forms 201 Early Typologies of Political Participation 201 Emerging Typologies of Political Participation 204 v vi Contents Institutional Forms of Political Participation 205 Political Talk/Political Discourse 206 Political Participation and the Internet 207 Campaigning and Canvassing 208 Noninstitutional Forms of Political Participation 209 Graffiti 209 Protest and Demonstrations 211 Social, Political, and Revolutionary Movements 212 Political Engagement and Group Context 215 Politics and Social Capital 216 Themes in Research on Social Capital and Political Participation 218 The Changing Nature of Political Participation 219 Conclusion 222 References 222 Chapter 7 ELECTIONS AND VOTING 226 Theoretical Frameworks 227 Pluralist 227 Elite/Managerial 227 Class 228 Rational Choice 228 Postmodern 228 Institutionalist and Political Culture 229 The Functions of Elections 229 Electoral Systems and Turnout 230 Voting Behavior Research 235 Social Cleavages or Characteristics 236 Social Class 236 Gender Gap 240 Racial Cleavages 241 Religious Cleavages 243 Political Views and Issue-Based Voting 244 Liberalism and Conservatism 245 Party Identification 247 U.S. Presidential Elections 248 Elections during the Twenty-First Century 251 Conclusion 263 Endnotes 264 References 264 Chapter 8 SOCIAL MOVEMENTS 269 Theoretical Frameworks 271 Pluralism and the Classical Collective Behavior Model of Social Movements 272 Elite Theory and Resource Mobilization 272 Class Framework or the Political Process Model 272 Rational Choice 273 Postmodern 274 Contents Old and New Social Movements 274 Smart Growth Movements as New Social Movements 276 Criticisms of New Social Movements 276 Other Approaches to Movements 277 Collective Identity 278 Framing 279 Emotions 281 Toward a Synthesis of Structuralist, Rationalist, and Culturalist Frameworks 283 The Life Cycle of Social Movements 284 Social Movement Emergence and Mobilization 284 Social Movement Outcomes, Influence, and Decline 289 Repression: The State’s Reaction to Movements 293 Globalization and Transnational Movements 295 Conclusion: Social Movements as Part of Political Sociology 297 Endnotes 298 References 298 Chapter 9 VIOLENCE AND TERRORISM 303 Political Uses of Hate 304 Genocide 304 Defining Genocide 304 Conditions for Genocide 305 Sociological Causes of Genocide 305 War Making 307 Theoretical Views on War Making 307 Future of War Making 309 New Wars 309 Terrorism 310 Defining Terrorism 312 Labeling Terrorism 314 Types of Terrorism 315 Terrorism and Sociological Theories 322 Collective Action Theory 323 Political Economy 323 World Systems Perspective 324 Framing 325 Categorical Terrorism 326 Causes of Terrorism 326 Microdynamic and Social Psychological Variables 327 Mesodynamic 327 Macrodynamic or Structural 329 Responding to Terrorism 333 Security and Response 333 Repression 334 Alleviating Structural Causes 335 vii viii Contents Eliminating Political Opportunities 335 Peacebuilding 336 The Future of Terrorism 336 Optimistic View 337 Pessimistic View 337 Future Directions 337 Research 337 Conclusion 338 Endnotes 339 References 339 Chapter 10 GLOBALIZATION 344 What is Globalization? 345 Defining Globalization 345 Critique of the Term 346 Components of Globalization 346 Theoretical Perspectives on Globalization 351 World Systems Theory (WST) 351 Theories of Global Capitalism (GC) 352 Postmodern Views on Globalization 353 Network Society 353 Cultural Theories of Globalization 354 McDonaldization Thesis 355 Globalization Debates 356 Is Globalization Occurring? 356 What is the Evidence for Globalization? 357 Impact of Globalization on the Nation-State 359 Withering State Debate 360 Strong State–Weak State Thesis 361 Competing Globalization Camps 362 Theoretical Views on State Power 362 Public Policy 366 Welfare State 367 Nationalism 368 Democracy and Globalization 369 Is Democracy Spreading? 369 Role of Globalization 370 Exporting Democracy 372 Antiglobalization Movements 372 Future of Globalization 375 Future Trends 375 Future Sociological Research on Globalization 376 Conclusion 377 Endnotes 377 References 378 Credits 383 Index 384 TABLES AND FIGURES Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2 Figure 1.3 Figure 2.1 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 3.4 Figure 3.5 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Figure 7.1 Figure 7.2 Figure 8.1 Figure 9.1 Figure 9.2 Figure 9.3 Figure 9.4 Figure 9.5 Figure 10.1 Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 6.1 Table 6.2 Table 7.1 Table 7.2 Table 7.3 Table 7.4 Table 7.5 Table 8.1 Table 8.2 Table 10.1 Table 10.2 Table 10.3 Table 10.4 Table 10.5 The Pluralist Metaphor of Power: Groups and Coalitions at the Political Table 11 The Elite/Managerial Metaphor of Power: Dominance at Top 14 The Institutionalist’s Metaphor of Power 27 Differences between Major Models of the State 61 Materialist, Mixed, and Postmaterialist Population in Britain, France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, The Netherlands, and the United States by Age Group 88 Respondents Who Identify Themselves as Liberal, Moderate, or Conservative in the GSS, 1974 to 2008 94 TV as a Source of Political Information, 1974–2004, American National Election Studies 100 Newspapers as a Source of Political Information, 1974–2004, American National Election Studies 101 Internet as a Source of Political Information, 1996–2004, American National Election Studies 102 Major Categories of Federal Income and Outlays for Fiscal Year 2008 127 Social Security Reduces Number of Seniors in Poverty 131 The Social Control Model of State Response to Insurgency 134 Federal Capital Spending on Transportation and Water Infrastructure, 1956 to 2007 140 Pew Research Center 2009 Results on Public Opinion on Gay Marriage 163 Pew Research Center 2009 Results on Public Opinion on Civil Unions 164 Secrecy Folder for Absentee Voting in Iowa 231 Official Absentee Ballot for Story County, Iowa, in the 2008 Election 258 A Political Process Model of Movement Emergence 273 Comparison of Domestic Terrorism Deaths by Region 312 Terrorist Groups by Type 319 Terrorist Incidents by Global Region 321 Deaths by Region Including Both Domestic and International Terrorism 322 Location of Perpetrator and Victim in Terrorist Incidents 338 Pre and Post Reform Voting Power in the International Monetary Fund 348 Republicans, Democrats Change Views about Whether Government Is Run for Benefit of All (Depending on Which Political Party the President Affiliates With) 125 One Hundred Years of Taxes Showing When Tax Freedom Day Has Occurred 128 Contrasting Traditional Typologies of Political Participation 203 Types of Political Participation Reported in the 2008 National Election Studies 204 Voters among the Total Population (Eighteen plus), Citizens, and Registered Voting-Age Populations 1964–2008 Presidential Elections 233 National Election Political Preference from 2000, 2004, 2006, and 2008 CNN Exit Polls (in Percentage) by Selected Sociodemographic Characteristics 237–238 National Election Political Preferences from 2000, 2004, 2006, and 2008 CNN Election Exit Polls (in Percentages) by Political Attitudes 246 Popular Votes and Electoral College Votes in Presidential Elections 1960–2008 248–249 Media Exposure of Obama, Clinton, and McCain Over Time from January 6 to June 15, 2008 255 Characteristics of Old and New Social Movements 275 Characteristics of Pro-Growth and Smart Growth Movements 277 Theories of Globalization 356 Three Globalization Camps 358 Globalization Indicators 360 Differing Theoretical Views of the Impact of Globalization on the State 366 Antiglobalization Entities 375 ix PREFACE x Do you know that ancient Chinese proverb you get when you open a fortune cookie? “May you live in interesting times.” That’s not deep political sociology. But, the profound simplicity to capture our sociological moment is summarized in that phrase in so many ways. We live in one of the most fascinating periods in political and social history. Terrorism has pushed the global political landscape into different realms. In 2008 Americans elected the first African-American president. Today, we find ourselves struggling with economic hardships tipped into tensions created by deregulation of banking, ideological struggles that characterize the first decade of the twenty-first century, and all the economic and political uncertainty that comes with globalization. There is perhaps no better time to be a political sociologist. While political sociology has often been described as divergent, abstract, and fragmented, it continues to be an important subfield in sociology because a number of themes consistently explored by political sociologists are particularly relevant to the development of a sociological perspective. We believe undergraduate sociology students should be exposed to these themes, so we have written this text and its supplementary materials with three central goals. First, introduce undergraduate students to core concepts and research in political sociology. Second, highlight how sociologists have organized the study of politics into conceptual frameworks, and how each of these frameworks fosters a sociological perspective on power and politics in society. This includes discussing how these frameworks can be applied to understanding current issues and other real-life aspects of politics. Third, connect with students by engaging them in activities where they complete their own applications of theory, hypothesis testing, and forms of inquiry. We hope that instructors find the Web-based data applications and other supplementary material useful toward meeting this goal. The plan of the book unfolds around these three goals. We begin with a discussion of the central concept in political sociology: power. Chapter 1 explores the core concepts in the study of power not only in formal systems, but in informal contexts, all of which define the agenda in the study of power. The theoretical frameworks in political sociology organize the work of political sociologists, and each framework presents very different arguments about how to understand the connections among power, politics, and society. We outline these in Chapter 1, which then sets the agenda for the entire book. Chapter 2 examines how various sociological perspectives conceptualize the state and differentiate this political institution from nation. This chapter also considers the future of the state. In Chapter 3 we integrate the study of power and politics to align with the cultural turn in the field of sociology more generally. Here we examine the more traditional features of political culture, such as political values and ideology and the study of how these values are acquired. The chapter also presents more recent theorizing which mixes institutions and culture, and suggests that the two must go hand in hand in order to understand the nature of politics. As Mills suggested, private concerns connect to public issues. In Chapters 4 and 5 we give special treatment to describing how political sociologists have come to understand this important facet of the politics–society nexus. Chapter 4 especially focuses on the interplay between politics and economics. When we first conceived this chapter we understood how the middle class was losing ground, but we did not foresee how the economic woes of banks and the stock market would so dramatically influence us all. We thus modified our focus to include the Wall Street versus Main Street issue. Here we discuss the politics surrounding individual and corporate taxes, our welfare system, bankruptcies, foreclosures, and our worsening infrastructure. Chapter 5 illustrates how the political process impacts the institutions of education, including No Child Left Behind legislation, and marriage, especially the controversial issue of same-sex marriage (still legal in only a few states). This chapter would not be complete without considering the politics surrounding medical care and the difficulties of passing major health care reform. The concerns of civil liberties and national security are addressed as well, and we end the chapter pointing out that the state is a racial state and clearly influences our immigration policy. In Chapter 6 we move the analysis into a fairly comprehensive discussion of the nature of political participation. This area of political sociology is extensive and provides great insights into the ways in which individuals, political groups, the state, and other elements of the public sphere all come together in Preface xi the contest for power. The typologies of political participation presented in this chapter are good examples of the many ways in which political sociologists have examined the question, what power do individuals have to shape the political and social events of the day? The chapters that follow look at specific kinds of political participation: voting, movements, and terrorism. In Chapter 7 we analyze voting, which is likely the most direct way for a majority of individuals in a democracy to influence politics. Elections perform numerous roles for individuals …
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