These exercises should be comprehensive enough to mimic actual emergencies. The project can be thoroughly tested to determine if the hospital is ready to deal with all kinds of emergencies. It also helps verify how peopl … Purchase answer to see full attachment

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I’m working on a management project and need support to help me understand better.

I have a draft for the Emergency Operation plan EOP for a hospital, and I need to fix the professor’s comments. The important part, still looking for expansion in lit review – hospital case studies and the discussion section on page 14

-use Grammarly to check the grammar.

– please, read through the document to understand the project very well before writing part of the discussion and literature review.



Running Head: Emergency Operation Plan for Alamal Hospital Abstract Al Amal Mental Health Complex Hospital in Riyadh is one of the most prestigious hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The complex includes two hospitals with multiple facilities, providing free treatment services. One wing specializes in mental illness, and the other in the field of substance abuse and addiction. This project reviews the existing emergency operations plan (EOP) in the hospital to identify the gaps, look for weaknesses in the plan, and provide recommendations. It involved hazard vulnerability analysis and an evaluation using the HVA method to provide suggestions on improving the EOP. Even though the hospital currently has an EOP, it was crucial to evaluate its strengths and weaknesses due to emergencies’ ever-changing nature and catastrophe. 1 Emergency Operation Plan for Alamal Complex Hospital Emergency Operation Plan (EOP) for Al Amal Mental Health Complex Hospital Emergency preparedness is a crucial component that every healthcare organization facility should treat with the highest priority levels. For this reason, The Joint Commission has made it mandatory for all the healthcare facilities it offers accreditation to have an emergency operation plan in place and carry out annual compulsory reviews. The primary components of an EOP in a hospital setting include safety and security, communication, patient and clinical support activities, resource and assets, utility management, staff responsibilities, and regular testing and evaluation. Al Amal Mental Health Complex Hospital is one of the biggest hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and already has an emergency operations plan, but its effectiveness needs to be reviewed. An analysis should get done to evaluate if the EOP meets all the recommended standards. Disasters and emergencies can take a substantial financial toll, are strenuous, and lead to chaos in organizations and hospitals. Therefore, having an EOP on its own without carrying out frequent reviews and exercises is not enough in dealing with disasters if they occur. The EOP needs to get reviewed to ensure that it follows the guidelines of the Saudi Central Board for Accreditation of Healthcare Institutions (CBAHI) and the other regulatory bodies in Saudi Arabia to obtain the necessary safety certifications. From a cursory look, one would say that the EOP at Al Amal Mental Health Complex has tried to address the majority of the critical elements of EOP in making sure that there is sufficient preparation, response, and mitigation of disaster emergencies. It clearly defines what qualifies to be a disaster for categories, preparedness, disaster response, hazard and vulnerability analysis, equipment, staffing, and communication. 2 Emergency Operation Plan for Alamal Complex Hospital However, the EOP is rooted in the three building blocks of preparedness: identification, review, and verification (Khan et al., 2018). Therefore, it remains a challenge to establish if the EOP is compliant with the standards and that the hospital is prepared to deal with any kind of disaster or emergency. Therefore, this project’s primary purpose is to determine if the EOP at Al Amal Mental Health Complex complies with all the required standards by carrying out vulnerability analysis. Need for the Project Every hospital must have an emergency operation plan as it specifies the course of action that the hospital would take to respond and recover from potential hazards. The EOP serves as the manual, providing the processes and structure of disaster preparedness. Without it, a hospital would not be in a position to adequately prepare and respond when an emergency or disaster occurs (Keim, 2013). It makes sure that the hospital is prepared to deal with various emergencies that come in different scales and durations. Al Amal Mental Health Complex already has an EOP in place. It is a clear indication that the hospital is aware that various emergencies may occur and prepared itself to deal with such events. A quick overview of the EOP shows that the hospital has tried to address multiple response strategies, including coordination between various hospital departments, and listed several contingency plans. However, any EOP requires frequent reviews to evaluate if some areas need to be improved or completely overhauled. This project reviews the effectiveness of the EOP at Al Amal Mental Health Complex. It provides a thoroughly revised EOP that can even be adopted by other healthcare facilities to prepare and respond to disasters and emergencies. The revised EOP will also be beneficial to the hospital. For example, it will significantly help provide a guideline for implementing and enforcing the emergency plan, 3 Emergency Operation Plan for Alamal Complex Hospital serve as a management tool that will support the revision of procedures, and evaluate both the current practices and the future’s strengths and weaknesses. Also, it will be helpful in training and simulation of possible events in the hospital, providing clear guidance to all the personnel involved to know what they are required to do in various emergency cases. Moreover, given that emergencies cause a substantial financial strain in hospitals or other organizations, this project’s findings will significantly help allocate resources appropriately for the potential hazards that Al Amal Mental Health Complex may face. The results will impact all the dimensions of the EOP and lead to an improvement in coordination between the personnel and systems, improve the overall operations, acquire the required technology, and identify possible areas for enhancing the preparedness measures. Literature Review An emergency operations plan (EOP) is an instrument or document that establishes the procedures that should get followed when responding to disasters or emergencies. It clarifies what individuals should do and the specific tasks that need to be carried out when such an event occurs (Turoff et al., 2013). It also shows the organizational relationships and chain of authority that should be followed when coordinating the response activities; this helps avoid confusion on who should issue directives and the correct chain of command. The document must address specific ways through which the property and people will be protected when disasters and emergencies occur. The key personnel, facilities, equipment, supplies, and other resources are also identified, and guidance is given on how they should get utilized when responding to emergencies and disasters (McMahon, 2014). The objective of preparedness planning is to create an ongoing capacity to respond to a range of situations likely to affect a country or region by establishing a broad set of preparedness measures. It includes early warning systems, ongoing risk and vulnerability 4 Emergency Operation Plan for Alamal Complex Hospital assessment, capacity building, creation and maintenance of reserve capacities, and supplies storage. Running a contingency planning process will constitute a fundamental component when analyzing the tasks carried out in the said process. It will facilitate the design, testing, and execution of responses (Khan et al., 2019). For a preparedness plan to be effective, all affected stakeholders must be actively involved in its formulation. A process based on participation will foster a sense of ownership among all affected stakeholders and contribute to the seamless execution of plans when disaster strikes. Coordinated participation will help solve the problems related to the assignment of responsibilities when a disaster strikes and enables effective scaling-up of aid during disasters. The guide “From words to action” of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction highlights a series of helpful questions to ask to assess participation in preparedness planning (Chmutina & von Meding, 2019). These questions are as follows: • Are all competent and mandated bodies represented, including technical sectors? • Are relevant departments represented? • Is the planning process organized in reality so that all participants can attend planning meetings? The process must get adequately defined before it starts (For example, through monthly seminars, multi-day workshops, etc.) • Are considerations of community structures and community structures addressed in the planning process? What about cultural concerns and the provision of goods and services? • Have the different roles played by men and women been taken into account in the planning process 5 Emergency Operation Plan for Alamal Complex Hospital • How have community members participated in decision-making, planning, implementation, and evaluation of service delivery and programs? • Have the specific needs of vulnerable groups been assessed and taken into account? • Have possible sources of tension between community sectors been evaluated and taken into account? • Have local capacities and methods used to encourage community members to get assessed so as for them to participate in operations and recovery from disasters actively, a process that is then linked to the local and national planning process? Every EOP that is effective and practical must address the four mission areas of the emergency management cycle, the relevant international standards and in the local area where the organization is located, systematic analysis of hazards, and collaboration with other related parties. The four mission areas include mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. i. Mitigation In the mitigation mission area, efforts are made to prevent future emergencies from happening or minimize their potential impacts. It is usually the first stage in the cycle carried out before a disaster or an emergency strikes to evade the disasters or, for the unavoidable ones, finding ways to minimize the effects. The main goal at this stage is to lower the organization’s vulnerability to the potential disaster impacts. For instance: loss of lives, injuries, or property damage. Examples of activities carried out during this stage include: • Inspecting the organization’s property to identify the areas that are more prone to disasters and then strengthening them. • Developing and enforcement of building standards and codes. • Strengthening public infrastructure 6 Emergency Operation Plan for Alamal Complex Hospital • Use of fire-retardant materials to reduce the risk of fires ii. Preparedness This mission illustrates an understanding of how the disaster might impact the organization and provide education on the best ways to respond and establish preparedness measures. During this stage, some of the activities carried out include organizing training sessions, conducting drills, carrying out desktop exercises, educating all the organization people about disaster/emergency preparedness, and carrying out disaster preparedness exercises on a large scale. It ensures that all the stakeholders fully understand what they are supposed to do when a disaster or emergency strikes and respond within the shortest time possible. It may also involve pre-disaster strategic planning that outlines how the organization will react to a potential crisis. iii. Response It is the phase that occurs just immediately after a disaster or emergency strikes. During this stage, the organization’s focus should address the immediate threats facing the people, business, or property. It includes efforts to save people’s lives, search and rescue, triage, firefighting, provide acute medical care, provide shelter, address basic humanitarian needs, assess the damage caused, and distribute resources. However, as the response period advances, the focus changes from focusing on the immediate threats to other activities such as carrying out repairs, clearing up, reestablishing operations, restoring utilities, and a comprehensive clean-up. iv. Recovery 7 Emergency Operation Plan for Alamal Complex Hospital At this stage, the organization focuses on the activities that will help return to the regular order of things before the disaster or the emergency struck. During this time, the organization has already regained some degree of stability from the previous stage, focusing on gaining long-term strength. This stage is generally divided into two phases: short-term and long-term. The short-term activities can get carried out between six months to one year while long-term activities take more time, for example, more than two years. Apart from considering these four mission areas, the EOP must also make sure that it complies with regulatory authorities’ recommended practices, such as The Saudi Central Board for Accreditation of Healthcare Institutions (CBAHI). For the Al Amal Mental Health Complex case, the EOP must also ensure that it meets the guidelines specified by the Saudi Arabia government regarding hospitals. According to (Kapucu & Hu, 2014), every EOP in hospitals must address the following elements: safety and security, communication, patient and clinical support activities, resource and assets, utility management, staff responsibilities, and regular testing and evaluation. Regarding communication, the EOP must specify the vital internal and external emergency response communication details (“Emergency Management,” n.d.). Some of the matters that need to be addressed include establishing a central communication command center, identifying how the information should flow, and providing the relevant people or authorities’ contact details that should get conducted in emergencies. The EOP should also include effective communication strategies that will lead to effective coordinated responses with external authorities and stakeholders. Another critical element that should get addressed in the EOP is resources and assets (“Emergency Management,” n.d.); this involves enumerating all the resources and assets available for emergency response. It plays a vital role in establishing its limits and providing 8 Emergency Operation Plan for Alamal Complex Hospital alternatives that can get considered if the available resources run short. The Joint Commission recommends that the EOP of health facilities must include emergency resources such as supplies to ensure the effective mitigation of potential hazards. While reviewing EOP, one of the crucial things to be done should be checking if the hospital’s plan outlines all the resources available for emergency response and evaluating if they are adaptive to the ever-changing nature of hazards. An emergency operations plan must also address matters regarding safety and security. Any effective hospital EOP must clearly outline the hospital’s safety and security procedures for both the patients and all the other staff members affected by an occurrence of emergencies (Taschner et al., 2016). The EOP should include a statement of the hospital’s security measures such as evacuation processes, hazardous waste management procedures, and coordination with the other security authorities; this helps the hospital or any other given organization avoid situations that would cause more casualties. According to Taschner et al. (2016), another critical element of any EOP is addressing staff responsibilities and being reviewed more frequently. The reason behind this is that hazards are forever changing. Thus the allocation of duties should be done appropriately, ensuring that responsibilities are given to personnel according to their areas of expertise and capability. Having specified roles in the EOP ensures that people understand their responsibilities and dramatically improve their emergency response capability. The duties allocation must also get continuously reviewed so that the personnel is well conversant with their duties, the communication techniques, and how they can utilize the available resources and assets. Utility management is another critical element in emergency operation plans. The EOP should include how the flow of utilities in the facility will continue. In a hospital setting, 9 Emergency Operation Plan for Alamal Complex Hospital these utilities include water, medical gas, electricity, and fuel. Therefore, the revised EOP must provide a way of ensuring that the supply of these utilities continues without interruption in the case of emergencies. Hence, when reviewing EOP, it is crucial to evaluate if there are strategies that have been put in place to ensure continuity of operations. For instance, an essential concern in utility management regarding emergency planning is labeling systems and valves. Therefore, an EOP review should aim to make sure that the labels that are contained in the plan are appropriately done. The element of clinical and patient support activities is only relevant in the healthcare facility setting, and it is a very critical one. The plan should ensure that it addresses how patients will be offered proper care in emergencies. According to Taschner et al. (2016), the EOP must outline ways through which the hospital will react to emergencies to ensure that the clinical services will go on. There should be a projection of how hazards may affect the hospital and its ability to care for the patients and offer treatment services. It should outline alternatives that should get used to providing patients with an emergency that adversely affects the primary means. The final factor that every EOP should have is regular testing and evaluation. Periodic testing and evaluation of all the other elements should be mandatory for all hospital emergency operation plans (Boyd et al., 2014); this is the fact that it is the only way of knowing if the EOP is valuable and practical. Therefore, EOPs, especially for hospitals, should be subjected to regular testing and evaluation, such as twice per year, since hospitals are also the leading organizations involved in emergency response when a disaster occurs in the community. However, hospitals’ emergency preparedness does not end with checking that an EOP has satisfied all the seven necessary elements. According to Taschner et al. (2016), the health 10 Emergency Operation Plan for Alamal Complex Hospital centers must also develop a site-specific response that identifies threats, risks, and preparedness needs for each specific event. Essentially, the hospitals should review their EOP at least once in a while to get accurate and valuable responses to newly identifiable risk variables. The review process should consider the operational requirements, best practices, response objectives, response procedures, and mitigation opportunities to be fully prepared to handle emergencies (Taschner et al., 2016). The reviews also need to include debriefing sessions for all the response entities supposed to collaborate during emergencies. These are important meetings where the person in charge of the response team meets together with the rest of the team members, especially the outside responders, to ensure that the EOP is compliant and consistent with the hospital’s protocols and best practices. Emergency operations also include the local responders such as the fire department, police, and emergency services. Other key stakeholders include community organizations such as Red Cross and utility firms such as telephone service providers and gas companies. All these need to get included in the debriefing sessions. Others have the neighborhood’s business premises that can get utilized for transferring patients if the emergency makes it impossible for the hospital to care for the patients in its facility. Another critical step is the verification of the effectiveness of the plan through testing exercises. These exercises should be comprehensive enough to mimic actual emergencies. The project can be thoroughly tested to determine if the hospital is ready to deal with all kinds of emergencies. It also helps verify how peopl …
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