SOC440 SPRING 2021 STUDY GUIDE FOR FINAL EXAM In order to prepare for the exam, you are encouraged to work in pairs or small groups and provide answers to the following questions. Use your notes, the readings, and other resources to answer the questions as completely as possible. Even though you are working with others, you must write in your own words, show a deep understanding of the material, and use college-level writing and language. You may only ask me questions about the contents of this study guide during our last class meetings. I will not answer emails or messages that pertain to the content of this study guide. Section I: Theories of Aging Discuss and give at least two clear

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Hello. The assignment is attached below. I will also provide all the readings needed. ALL YOU NEED TO DO IS FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS.

For section 3: There is a “Covid19 and aging article attached’

Section 4: There is an article tiltled “Older Women and Sexuality”

For section 5: please use the attached book report as reference.

PLEASE USE APA FORMAT

 

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SOC440 SPRING 2021 STUDY GUIDE FOR FINAL EXAM In order to prepare for the exam, you are encouraged to work in pairs or small groups and provide answers to the following questions. Use your notes, the readings, and other resources to answer the questions as completely as possible. Even though you are working with others, you must write in your own words, show a deep understanding of the material, and use college-level writing and language. You may only ask me questions about the contents of this study guide during our last class meetings. I will not answer emails or messages that pertain to the content of this study guide. Section I: Theories of Aging Discuss and give at least two clear examples of any two of the following theories as they apply to aging. You should write at least 2 paragraphs for each. Disengagement, Subculture, Modernization, Age Stratification Section II: Problems for the Aging Discuss and give clear examples of two societal problems that the aging population faces. You should write approximately 3-5 paragraphs. Discuss and give clear examples of two health-related problems that the aging population faces. You should write approximately 3-5 paragraphs. Discuss a specific organization, business, or facility that assists the aging. Be sure to include what they offer and if they include any other special groups (eg. LGBTQ, veterans, people of a specific ethnicity or religion, etc.) You should write approximately 3-5 paragraphs. Section III: Aging and COVID Discuss any one specific reading provided in the course pertaining to the elderly population and the effects of COVID-19 and answer the following questions. You should write no less than 3 paragraphs. • How has the pandemic affected the mental health of seniors? • Other than the possibility of actually getting COVID-19, what have been some of the other physical health concerns related to isolation during the pandemic? • Discuss ways in which seniors have been supported through the pandemic. Be specific. Section IV: Intimacy, Sexuality, and Aging Discuss how aging may impact sexuality, intimacy, and desire, both negatively and positively. Use some examples from readings, films, and class discussions to support your ideas. You should write approximately 3-5 paragraphs. Section V: Book or Film Briefly discuss either the book or film report/presentation you did earlier in the course. What was the book or film and how does it relate to any one of the following theories? Please do not write about how it does not relate to a theory. Provide some specific examples to support your argument. You should write approximately 3-5 paragraphs. Conflict Theory, Subculture, Modernization, Age Stratification, 3rd Wave Feminism 1 The Loved One is the 1948 satirical novella written by famed British author Evelyn Waugh. Set in 1940s Hollywood, the story revolves around the macabre exploits of British poet-cumscreenwriter Dennis Barlow. After losing his studio contract, Dennis careens back and forth between his job at Happier Hunting Ground pet cemetery and the Whispering Glades funeral home, tending the corpses of both humans and animals. Upon courting a female cosmetician named Aimee Thanatogenos, Dennis becomes embroiled in a sordid love triangle with Aimee and her distinguished employer, Mr. Joyboy. Loosely adapted into a feature film in 1965, The Loved One is a mordant satire on British expatriation, the pomp and pretense of the Hollywood film industry, and the cruel commercialism of the American funerary business. Narrated in the third-person dramatic POV, the story commences in Hollywood, California. Posh British thespian Sir Ambrose Abercrombie visits the house of Dennis Barlow and his publicist roommate Francis Hinsley. Dennis, a British emigrant and poet-cum-screenwriter, has just been relieved of his contract at Megalopolitan Studios. Dennis has since taken a position at Happier Hunting Grounds, a cemetery and funeral parlor for deceased pets. Abercrombie expresses his dismay, declaring such a job reflects poorly on the British community back home. Undeterred, Dennis gets a call from a Ms. Heinkel, soliciting his services for her dead dog Arthur. Dennis arrives at Ms. Heinkel’s place, negotiates the funeral arrangements, and stores Arthur’s corpse back at Happier Hunting Grounds. Weeks after, Hinsley continues to struggle at Megalopolitan Studios. Tasked with reimaging the visage of screen idol Juanita del Pablo from “Spanish to Irish,” the job proves too difficult for Hinsley. The studio forces him to leave the premises and work from home. When his secretary 2 stops showing up for work, Hinsley confronts studio brass. He learns his contract has been terminated and that a younger publicist has replaced him. Hinsley grows deeply depressed and hangs himself. When Dennis discovers Hinsley’s corpse, Abercrombie advises him to make funeral arrangements at Whispering Glades. Abercrombie, ever-obsessed with maintaining an upscale English reputation, discusses with fellow British expats about Dennis ’scurrilous choice to eschew Hollywood for the cemetery. While at Whispering Glades, Dennis greets and becomes instantly infatuated with the junior cosmetician, Aimee Thanatogenos (Aimee means “loved one” in French and Thanatogenos means “born of death” in Greek). Dennis and Aimee discuss how Hinsley ought to be made up for his funeral. Afterwards, Aimee expresses her adoration for Mr. Joyboy, the chief mortician and cosmetician at Whispering Glades. Hearing this, Dennis declines a further tour of the mortuary. At Happier Hunting Grounds, Dennis asks his employer Mr. Schultz for three days off to prepare for Hinsley’s funeral. Schultz reluctantly agrees. Arranging the funeral, Abercrombie meets with Dennis and asks him to select meaningful literary works of Hinsley’s to recite in a eulogy. Dennis finds an esoteric book review and passes it to Abercrombie. Dennis gives a scandalous ode to Hinsley, further sullying the English reputation. All the while, Joyboy is preparing the body of Hinsley at Whispering Glades. He shows his work to Aimee, who beams with 3 compliments. Joyboy’s trademark smile kneaded into the face of his corpses is once again on display with Hinsley. Six weeks on, torn between her affection for Dennis and Joyboy, Aimee writes to advice columnist Guru Brahmin asking what to do. Aimee’s previously held romantic feelings for Joyboy start to diminish when she meets his overbearing mother. Also, Dennis begins wooing Aimee by sending her plagiarized poetry from literary decedents, the origins of which remain unbeknownst to her. Aimee is further bemused when Joyboy informs her that she has been groomed to be the first female embalmer at Whispering Glades. The same day that Aimee meets Joyboy’s mother for dinner, she also attends a daytime date with Dennis. Dennis proposes marriage during their date, but when Aimee learns the proposal is in part based on the earning power of her potential raise at Whispering Glades, she becomes irate. Torn, Aimee asks for more advice from Guru Brahmin. It turns out Guru Brahmin are actually three separate people: a secretary, a columnist, and an alcoholic advice writer named Mr. Slump. After consideration, Mr. Slump implores Aimee to choose Joyboy over Dennis. Aimee opts to wed Dennis instead. Dennis asks for a raise, gets denied, and then speaks with a minister at a pet funeral service. In realizing the ministry is far more lucrative than his work at the mortuary, Dennis tells Aimee his intention of becoming a nondenominational pastor. Still unaware that Dennis works at Happier Hunting Grounds, Aimee informs Guru Brahmin and Joyboy that she has decided to marry 4 Dennis after all. Joyboy is distraught over the decision, while Guru Brahmin deigns a congratulatory blessing. Joyboy soon discovers Dennis ’poetic ruse when Aimee leaves a poem out for her employer to read. Joyboy also visits Happier Hunting Grounds to arrange for the funeral of his mother’s dead parrot. While there, Joyboy discovers Dennis is an employee. Knowing this information will devastate Aimee, Joyboy invites her to attend the funeral for his mother’s parrot. Upon learning of Dennis ’deceit, Aimee ends their engagement. Dennis tries to win Aimee back, to no avail. Aimee seeks solace from Joyboy, but he’s too busy entertaining his mother’s new parrot. Aimee then seeks advice from Mr. Slump, who she learns has been fired. Still, he drunkenly berates Aimee. She then swallows a bottle of barbiturates. At work the next day, Aimee injects herself with embalming fluid and dies. Joyboy finds Aimee’s corpse and takes her to Happier Hunting Grounds for Dennis ’help. Dennis assures Joyboy that he will take care of it. Abercrombie shows up, paying Dennis to return to England rather than stay and besmirch the British community by becoming a pastor. The novella ends with everyone in town thinking Dennis and Aimee ran off to England together. In reality, Dennis sits back with a book and waits for Aimee’s body to incinerate. 5 It seems that the novel doesn’t have at least one character whose behavior is not rather questionable. They are either vain or cynical or simply too irritatingly sensitive to every little thing. It is extremely interesting how the author covers a theme of human vanity with the help of Whispering Glades. What is death? It is ending of one’s life. If the dead person has relatives and friends, he/she will be grieved for. That is it, a natural – though very sad – thing. What do the creator and workers of Whispering Glades do? They make a travesty out of it! They give corpses “the radiant childhood” smiles, make them look unrecognizably, put too much makeup on them, and dress them up. A dead person gets buried under fakery. The funniest thing is that Whispering Glades are a perfect place but not for dead ones. This is where so called “waiting ones” can entertain themselves. It would be rather unrealistic to implement a classic love line in this novel, so the writer resolves to a comedy. Poor Aimee has to choose between being unethical and unhappy or being unhappy but staying ethical. This is an issue that drains all strength from her, for she simply can’t make up her mind and end the drama she created. On the one hand, there is Dennis Barlow. On the other hand, there is Mr. Joyboy. Dennis is everything that the young woman believes to be unethical and cynical. Though he is a poet, the man can be rather crude and unpredictable, thus Aimee doesn’t know what to expect. What is more, she doesn’t understand his dark sense of humor. Of course, Mr. Joyboy is nothing like his opponent. He is a perfect young man and would do everything possible to please. The problem is that the only one person he is afraid of disappointing is his mother. Hoping to get a clear instruction what to do and whom to choose, Aimee simply loses herself. 11/10/2020 Covid-19 and Immunity in Aging Populations — A New Research Agenda | NEJM Editor’s Note: This article was published on April , , at NEJM.org. Perspective Covid- and Immunity in Aging Populations — A New Research Agenda Wayne C. Ko , Ph.D., and Michelle A. Williams, Sc.D. August , N Engl J Med ; : DOI: . /NEJMp – Article Metrics References Citing Articles Article T C therapeutics and end a pandemic that threatens to infect a substantial portion of the planet’s population and perhaps kill millions of people, especially older adults. As billions of dollars ow into research and development e orts aimed at controlling the virus, the pandemic response remains hamstrung by our limited understanding of how to generate e ective immunity, particularly in the elderly. As we age, health conditions associated with aging, particularly noncommunicable diseases such as heart disease, cancers, and metabolic and autoimmune diseases, combined with treatments for these diseases and with immune senescence, substantially a ect responses to vaccines and infectious diseases. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE ) has been identi ed as the receptor for SARS-CoV- , the virus that causes Covid- , and it has been suggested that di erential levels of ACE in the cardiac and pulmonary tissues of younger versus older adults may be at least partially responsible for the spectrum of disease virulence observed among patients with Covid- . These ndings have led to debate regarding the potential https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp2006761 1/5 11/10/2020 Covid-19 and Immunity in Aging Populations — A New Research Agenda | NEJM use of ACE inhibitors in the context of the pandemic. This idea highlights the need for longitudinal studies in aging populations — such as the Rotterdam Study (a prospective cohort study focused on cardiovascular, neurologic, ophthalmologic, and endocrine diseases) — to examine the impact of coexisting conditions and therapies on the e ects of vaccines and infectious diseases. Even as the brunt of severe illness from Covid- is being borne by aging adults, we are navigating partially blind in e orts to develop vaccines and therapies to stop this and future pandemics, since we lack knowledge of the mechanisms of immunity to protect this population. If we can delineate principles of e ective immunity in the elderly, we might also be able to develop new strategies for broader disease prevention and control in older populations. Covid- has highlighted the vulnerability of aging populations to emerging diseases. This susceptibility to disease and death is also a major challenge for the development of vaccines and immunotherapeutic agents. Numerous studies have shown that vaccine e cacy decreases signi cantly with age, a reduction that is thought to be driven by the progressive age-related decline of innate and adaptive immune responses. Yet we know that some older people are protected by generally poorly performing vaccines, and some vaccines work very well in elderly populations: the Shingrix vaccine for shingles, for example, is % e ective in people over . What accounts for the variability in immune responses from one elderly person to another? How can we use our understanding of this variability in developing new and improved vaccines and therapies? Far from being mere academic exercises, the answers to these questions are critical to the future of global health. The Covid- experience in aging populations o ers a window into the profound, long-term, global demographic challenges the world is facing. According to the United Nations, projections indicate that by there will be more than twice as many people over as there are children under , and the number of people years of age or older globally will surpass the number of people to years of age. This global aging will create widespread public health challenges, dramatically increasing the burden of noncommunicable diseases and exposing our vulnerability to infectious diseases. The number of deaths related to antimicrobial resistance is projected to reach million per year by , exceeding mortality from cancer. Climate change could put an additional billion people at risk from tropical vectorborne diseases, and potentially pandemic diseases are emerging with greater frequency. Protecting aging populations will be a central, if not the primary, question in maintaining global health and biosecurity. Recent technological advances in biomedical and computer sciences provide an unprecedented opportunity to decode the human immune system. Innovations in systems biology applied in clinical immunology studies now allow immensely detailed measurements of human transcriptomic, proteomic, immune, and metabolic responses. Such studies have already led to improved understanding of the extent to which human responses within a population vary on several parameters, and of the in uence of the microbiome in host immunity, leading to considerations for novel vaccination and immune-therapeutic strategies. For example, many baseline “omic” signatures predictive of vaccine-induced immunity have been associated https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp2006761 2/5 11/10/2020 Covid-19 and Immunity in Aging Populations — A New Research Agenda | NEJM with innate immune parameters, which suggests that speci c and novel immunomodulators may enhance future vaccines and immunotherapies. Moreover, advances in bioinformatics, causal inference, and arti cial intelligence (AI) — building on AI advances from other elds, such as biomedical imaging — enable analyses of large-scale data sets that can help in determining the key elements and principles of e ective human immunity. These tools o er the potential for elucidating the mechanisms that di erentiate people who have a response to vaccines from those who do not, and for clarifying why some people develop e ective immune responses to disease. These answers should provide the basis for accelerating the discovery and development of new vaccines, diagnostics, and therapies for major diseases. Generating systems-biology data on an unprecedented scale should also enable computational scientists to begin to develop AI models of human immunity, which, if successful, could transform product development, enabling computer-generated simulation trials to facilitate faster and cheaper development, with a much greater probability of success. Innovative new studies are needed to investigate questions of why some people have stronger responses to vaccines or diseases than others so that we can better prevent and treat disease. This undertaking will require a global approach and a radically new vision — one that spans diseases and sectors of society, bringing together academia, industry, government, and philanthropic organizations. Covid- is already catalyzing collaboration among these sectors, and this work must continue beyond the pandemic. Thus, the tools are now available to decipher the principles of e ective immunity in aging populations. If investigators study cohorts of elderly people longitudinally and globally and probe their immune systems with licensed vaccines to distinguish people with e ective responses from those without, and apply cuttingedge tools from systems biology and AI, it should be feasible to identify biomarkers for e ective immunity in this population, which could then be applied to other vulnerable populations, such as those living in lowand middle-income countries. Over the long term, the research agenda will need to include cultivation of a new generation of multidisciplinary scientists trained in biomedical, informatics, and computer sciences in order to fully prepare for the next wave of emerging diseases. Covid- is highly transmissible, causes relatively high mortality, particularly in aging populations, and has emerged globally in our highly interconnected world. Short-term e orts to quickly develop lifesaving vaccines and therapeutics are of the utmost importance. In the long term, however, we will have to shi from investing primarily in disease-speci c research to simultaneously targeting su cient resources toward decoding the human immune system, particularly for the world’s most vulnerable populations. Such an e ort could accelerate the development of new vaccines, diagnostics, and treatments — not just for Covid- , but also for future emerging pathogens as well as the noncommunicable diseases of aging that are our major global killers. We need bold action as soon as possible to help all of humanity live longer and healthier lives. Funding and Disclosures https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp2006761 3/5 11/10/2020 Covid-19 and Immunity in Aging Populations — A New Research Agenda | NEJM Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available at NEJM.org. This article was published on April , , at NEJM.org. Author A liations From the Human Vaccines Project, New York (W.C.K.); and the H …
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