So I have worked on this project a little and I have developed a paper, I just want you to add the theory of acculturation and provide a clear explanation of what is the theory, and how it is related to the immigrants, and tie everything together in the paper. Also, I think it may be best to dedicate a whole section to the challenges, strengths, and resiliency. I believe that it is always good to have a balance between challenges and strengths. Once you have identified the ones you would like to include, this could be a section of two paragraphs for challenges, two paragraphs for strengths, and one paragraph for resiliency.

I’m working on a psychology project and need a sample draft to help me learn.


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This is a two part assignment

for the first part:

So I have worked on this project a little and I have developed a paper, I just want you to add the theory of acculturation and provide a clear explanation of what is the theory, and how it is related to the immigrants, and tie everything together in the paper. Also, I think it may be best to dedicate a whole section to the challenges, strengths, and resiliency. I believe that it is always good to have a balance between challenges and strengths. Once you have identified the ones you would like to include, this could be a section of two paragraphs for challenges, two paragraphs for strengths, and one paragraph for resiliency.

Also i am missing family-based practices and interventions/policies make sure to add some.

I would recommend using this source:

Vesely, C., Letiecq, B., & Goodman, R. (2019). Parenting across two worlds: Low-income Latina immigrants’ adaptation to motherhood in the United States. Journal of Family Issues, 40(6), 711–738.

Look at the example below and use it as a reference.

Part two:

Make a PPT presentation with pictures about the same topic and add notes to what is supposed to be in the paper.

PLEASE don’t hesitate to be creative!



Running head: CHALLENGES AND RESILIENCE IN SEEKING ECE 1 Challenges and Resilience Immigrant Families Face in Seeking Early Care and Education (ECE) George Mason University CHALLENGES AND RESILIENCE IN SEEKING ECE 2 Challenges and Resilience Immigrant Families Face in Seeking Early Care and Education The number of children in immigrant families, especially second-generation immigrant children, has increased substantially (Zong, Batalova, & Burrows, 2019), contributing to the racial-ethnic transformation in the United States. Immigrant families comprise 13.7% of the U.S population and 26% of all children live with at least one immigrant parent (Zong et al., 2019). Due to the rising population of immigrant families, it is crucial to ensure these children have equal opportunities in accessing early care and education as their native-born peers. ECE and various early learning experiences provide school readiness, psychosocial benefits, language development, and family services (Ansari, 2018). Topic Overview Previous research has associated higher rates of parental care among immigrant families with culture preferences; however, it is evident that the lower rates of formal care are due to contextual and structural factors (Ha, & Ybarra, 2014; Johnson, Padilla, & Votrube-Drzal, 2018; Sandstrom, & Gelatt, 2017; Vesely, 2013). Preferred child care characteristics, values, and perceptions are similar among foreign-born, US-born, limited English-proficient, and Englishproficient parents (Sandstrom & Gelatt, 2017); yet immigrant and low-income families are less likely to utilize formal care (Ha, & Ybarra, 2014; Crosnoe, Davis-Kean, Purtell, Ansari, Benner, 2016). Children of immigrants and low-income children benefit the most from preschool but are least likely to receive it (Crosnoe et al., 2016), and more often utilize parental care (Ha, & Ybarra, 2014). Families utilize ECE for various reasons due to desire for care, necessity, or both. Parents recognize the benefits of early learning experiences and want their children to gain academic and social skills and prepare for kindergarten. Immigrant families search for arrangements in order CHALLENGES AND RESILIENCE IN SEEKING ECE 3 support language development and learn English (Vesely, 2013). In addition, parents want their children to associate with children and providers from diverse backgrounds (Vesely, 2013). Immigrants comprise 17% of the workforce (Zong et al., 2019); therefore, child care during employment hours is vital for families, especially among maternal employment (Ha & Ybarra, 2014; Vesely, 2013) and uncoupled parents (Vesely, Letiecq, & Goodman, 2019). Despite these important reasons in seeking ECE, there are many challenges presented to immigrant families in obtaining these arrangements. Theoretical Framework Access to ECE is defined as “parents, with reasonable effort and affordability, can enroll their child in an arrangement that supports the child’s development and meets the parents’ needs” (Friese, Lin, Forry, & Tout, 2017, p. 5). Reasonable effort is defined as the availability of ECE, such as location, obtainable slots within the community for various ages, and easily accessible information for parents (Friese et al., 2017). Affordability is seen as the out-of-pocket costs for parents compared to their income (Friese et al., 2017). An arrangement that supports the child’s development consists of high-quality programs that offer coordination of services, supports child stability, and meet a child’s unique needs (Friese et al., 2017). Access to an arrangement that meets parental need is defined as the type of program, transportation availability, and program hours of operation (Friese et al., 2017). The four dimensions demonstrate challenges for immigrant families due to logistical needs and limited navigational capital, high-costs of care, language barriers, and family needs based on employment (Mendez, Crosby, & Siskind, 2018). The framework assists in understanding the important factors in accessing ECE and how immigrant family’s search for ECE. CHALLENGES AND RESILIENCE IN SEEKING ECE 4 Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory assists in understanding the interaction between individual, family, and social-structural factors (Bronfenbrenner, 1994). The interaction of these micro and macro factors impact how immigrant families search for ECE. Individual and family factors, the micro-level, include family configurations, location, parental language, culture, documentation status, employment; while social-structural factors, the macro-level, include antiimmigration policies, limited navigational capital, cost of child care, and the primary language in the U.S. It is crucial to understand how macro-level structures and barriers impact micro-level family decision-making, as well as how micro-level family strengths offer resilience in macrolevel systems (Bronfenbrenner, 1994). The primary focus is to analyze the challenges and resilience immigrant families face when seeking child care arrangements in regard to access to ECE; however, it is important to note the macro and micro structures impacting access. Challenges in Seeking ECE The challenges immigrant families face in the U.S. quite similar (Perreira, Chapman, & Stein, 2006). Many experience poverty (Mendez et al., 2018), with 32% of low-income children were children of immigrants (Zong et al., 2019), discrimination, and fear (Perreira et al., 2006). These macro-level challenges, along with cost and availability of care, current anti-immigrant climate, and English as the dominant language, create barriers for immigrant families in accessing ECE and shape the context in which they must operate. Therefore, the micro-level challenges in family characteristics and stressors, including limited navigational capital, parental trust, social networks, limited English proficiency, and employment hours may contribute to additional barriers, limiting families access to ECE even more (Goodman, Vesely, Letiecq, & Cleaveland, 2017; Ha & Ybarra, 2014; Johnson et al., 2018; Sandstrom, & Gelatt, 2017; Vesely, Letiecq, & Goodman, 2019). Following the definition of access to ECE, reasonable effort, CHALLENGES AND RESILIENCE IN SEEKING ECE 5 affordability, an arrangement to support child’s development, and an arrangement that aligns with parent’s needs is examined. Reasonable Effort Logistical needs. These needs, including the child’s age and location, contribute to how parents seek for ECE. The child’s age impacts how families seek care, since there is limited availability of child care for younger children (Hepburn, 2018). In addition, the community in which the family lives may determine program availability. In neighborhoods with high poverty there was an association with lower use of formal care, which could be due to the limited highquality options within low-income neighborhoods (Ha & Ybarra, 2014). Quality care for various ages, accessible in all neighborhoods and communities, is vital in guaranteeing access to ECE. Navigational capital. Navigating institutions, such as ECE, among immigrant families is challenging due to the current anti-immigrant political climate and documentation status. Drastic changes proposed to public charge could impact the resources immigrant families decide to use, foregoing formal care, in fear of these resources could prevent a pathway to citizenship (Whitener, 2018). The anti-immigrant context forces families who are undocumented or mixed status families to live in fear of family separation and deportation (Goodman et al., 2017). The fear and limited trust that parents who are undocumented experience prevents the use of formal center-based care, given that undocumented Latinx families are more likely to utilize parental care than center-based care, when compared to documented Latinx families (Ha & Ybarra, 2014). Furthermore, center-based ECE that required parental documentation in order to enroll, inhibits parental choice (Vesely, 2013). These macro-level policies, combined with micro-level program availability, shape the decisions parents make in finding care arrangements, and may thwart access to ECE. CHALLENGES AND RESILIENCE IN SEEKING ECE 6 Social networks. Documentation status and the migration process inhibits the formation of social networks, especially among immigrants who are undocumented (Goodman et al., 2017; Vesely, 2013). Building social connections in the context of fear is challenging, as families may cope with this by reducing contact with others. Even within populated “immigrant enclaves”, there are feelings of isolation and limited trust (Vesely et al., 2019). Since many parents choose care based on recommendations of trusted family and friends (Vesely, 2013), they may have limited in their options and access to ECE if these networks are not available to them. Affordability Affordability is one of the greatest constraints in accessing child care, and many families must often forego desired characteristics in order to adapt to the cost of care (Johnson et al., 2018; Mendez et al., 2018). Formal child care costs continue to rise, with low-income families paying 20-30% of their total income on ECE, making it exceedingly difficult to obtain child care (Friese et al., 2017). Even if government programs, such as Head Start, are available, immigrant families are less likely to ask for assistance, especially if they are undocumented. In addition, state generosity impacts the type of benefits and subsidies available to immigrants (Johnson et al., 2018). The structural constraints in cost of care, limited subsidies available, and willingness to use government programs, contributes to family decisions in seeking care arrangements, and limits access to ECE. Supports Child Development Approximately 48% of immigrants, over the age of 5, have limited English proficiency (Zong et al., 2019), meaning, language barriers are present when seeking ECE programs. Bilingual programs and staff are important in order to promote effective communication between providers, parents, and children; however, accessing bilingual staff is difficult due to limited CHALLENGES AND RESILIENCE IN SEEKING ECE 7 availability (Mendez et al., 2018). In a survey-based study, limited English-proficient parents did not access formal child care as often as English-proficient parents (Sandstrom & Gelatt, 2017) and used nonrelative home-based care more often, possibly due to the desire to have a provider that speaks their native language or due to other structural barriers in accessing formal care (Sandstrom & Gelatt, 2017; Vesely, 2013). Opportunities to learn English, such as taking classes, is not plausible for all parents because of constraints on work schedules, availability, or provided child care (Johnson et al., 2018). Overall, when parents were English proficient or bilingual providers were present, children were more likely to enroll in public ECE (Johnson et al., 2018; Sandstrom & Gelatt, 2017). The limited availability of bilingual providers does not allow for access to ECE programs. The inability to access ECE programs that offer various languages impacts how parents seek for ECE and the types of programs they will be forced to consider. Meets Parents’ Needs There is a high need for child care during employment hours, especially among mothers (Crosnoe et al., 2016; Ha & Ybarra, 2014; Vesely, 2013), uncoupled parents, or when there is limited family support available (Vesely et al., 2019). Immigrants often work nonstandard hours, including weekends and evenings (Mendez et al., 2018); however, center-based programs typically operate on weekdays during standard hours of work (Monday through Friday, 9 AM to 5 PM). The systematic structure of child care hours does not align with family needs and constrains their choices. Maternal employment during nonstandard work hours contributed to more utilization of parental, relative, and home-based care and multiple care arrangements (Hepburn, 2018). The lack of availability of care during nonstandard work hours, when parents need for child care is most prominent, forces parents to sacrifice desired characteristics, and constrains access to ECE. CHALLENGES AND RESILIENCE IN SEEKING ECE 8 Resilience in Seeking ECE The resilience immigrant families possess assists in overcoming challenges, especially when seeking ECE. A resilience framework provides understanding to how families function in face of adversity, or operate within macro-level constraints, and utilize their family strengths (Walsh, 2004). These family strengths, including being bicultural and bilingual, two-parent families, close relationships, and the belief their children will have better opportunities, serve as protection towards systematic barriers (Goodman et al., 2017; Johnson et al., 2018; Vesely, 2013; Vesely et al., 2019; Walsh, 2004). Biculturalism and Bilingualism Different cultures bring diverse perspectives, skills, knowledge, and experiences; therefore, biculturalism is an advantage among immigrant families (Perreira et al., 2006). Families may maintain culture through food, religious services, and their values (Goodman et al., 2017; Vesely et al., 2019; Walsh, 2004). Among Latinx families, familism positively impacts adjustment because it encourages collectivism, loyalty, and solidarity among family members, which supports family interactions (Vesely et al., 2019). Building connections with other families from similar country of origins with the same language supports resilience (Goodman et al., 2017) and assists in accessing ECE. Bilingualism offers benefits in child development and maintaining culture. Language barriers are present when accessing ECE; however, parents who are able to navigate through language barriers, by taking English classes or finding bilingual providers, had more ease in obtaining formal child care arrangements (Johnson et al., 2018; Vesely et al., 2019). Offering educational opportunities, regardless of language proficiency, supports parenting and family adjustment, while lowering family stress (Martinez, McClure, & Eddy, 2009). CHALLENGES AND RESILIENCE IN SEEKING ECE 9 Family Configurations and Networks Immigrant children are more likely to live in two-parent families (Sandstrom & Gelatt, 2017), which offers emotional and economic support. The social support of a spouse is beneficial throughout the process of migrating, navigating institutions, and serves as a protective factor (Goodman et al., 2017). In addition, the formation of social networks is beneficial in offering social and emotional support and learning how to navigate social institutions (Vesely, 2013). These relationships may assist in understanding the ECE process and programs, completing application forms, and communicating with care providers, especially when language barriers are present. In addition, parents often choose child care arrangements based on recommendations from trusted friends, family members, neighbors and employers (Vesely, 2013). Better Opportunities for Children The motivation to migrate and remain in the U.S. in many immigrant families is the belief that their children will have access to better opportunities (Perreira et al., 2006). Parents are able to find strength in the belief that the U.S. is more beneficial to their child’s future. This belief serves as an area of resilience since many parents preserve through extensive challenges and preserve a sense of optimism (Goodman et al., 2017; Vesely et al., 2019). It is important for parents to maintain a positive, through this belief, in order to overcome challenges, they may face when seeking ECE (Walsh, 2004). Implications for Policy and Practice There are numerous improvements that could be done at the macro-level in order to create less barriers and improve family’s access to ECE. Children under the age of four and lowincome neighborhoods need increased program availability, while still maintaining high quality programs (Ha & Ybarra, 2014). The requirement of documentation further marginalizes families CHALLENGES AND RESILIENCE IN SEEKING ECE 10 and creates barriers in accessing ECE for their children (Vesely, 2013), meaning, documentation should not be required in order to enroll in ECE. Accessing inexpensive care contributed to the enrollment in ECE programs; supporting that affordable child care helps increase enrollment in center-based care with fewer child care arrangements (Johnson et al., 2018). In addition, when families were able to obtain public benefits, they were more likely to use public ECE (Johnson et al., 2018); therefore, increasing child care subsidies and Head Start programs, as well as foregoing changes in public charge policies (Whitener, 2018), would assist in more family’s ability to access ECE programs. There is a crucial need to expand access and support to bilingual and bicultural providers for immigrant families to support parents, child development, and family adjustment (Johnson et al., 2018; Martinez et al., 2009). Child care providers need to offer care during nonstandard hours in order for parents to maintain employment (Ha & Ybarra, 2014), which could be accomplished by the government offering incentives to these providers. In addition, it is important to continue cultivating resilience among immigrant families by maintaining bicultural and bilingual values, upholding strong family relationships and social networks, and remaining optimistic (Perreira et al., 2006). Despite the numerous challenges’ immigrant families face when seeking ECE, families continue to show resilience and strengths, proven by the increase in formal child care (Mendez et al., 2018). ECE is often the first encounter immigrant parents have with the U.S. school systems and government institutions, meaning, it is crucial these are positive experiences. It is vital to ensure these families have access to ECE due to the resources and services they provide, such as early interventions, meals, mental health services, and a coordination of services, which assists not only the child’s development, but family needs as well. CHALLENGES AND RESILIENCE IN SEEKING ECE 11 References Ansari, A. (2018). The persistence of preschool effects from early childhood through adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(7), 952-973. doi:10.1037/edu0000255 Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological models of human development. International Encyclopedia of Education, 3(2). Oxford: Elsevier. Crosnoe, R., Davis-Kean, P., Purtell, K. M., Ansari, A., & Benner, A. D. (2016). The selection of children from low-income families into preschool. Developmental Psychology, 52(4), 599-612. doi:10.1037/dev0000101 Friese, S., Lin, V., Forry, N., & Tout, K. (2017). Defining and measuring access to high quality early care and education: A guidebook for policymakers and researchers. (Report #201708). Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Goodman, R., Vesely, C., Letiecq, B., & Cleaveland, C. (2017). Trauma and resilience among refugee and undocumented immigrant women. Journal of Counseling & Development, 95, 301-321. doi:10.1002/jcad.12145 Ha, Y. & Ybarra, M. (2014). The role of parental immigration status in Latino families’ child care selection. Children and Youth Services Review, 47, 342–351. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.10.011 Hepburn, P. (2018). Parental work schedules and child-care arrangements in low-income families. Journal of Marriage and Family, 80, 1187-1209. doi:10.1111/jomf.12505 CHALLENGES AND RESILIENCE IN SEEKING ECE 12 Johnson, A., Padilla, C. M., & Votrube-Drzal, E. (2018). Predictors of public early care and education use among children of low-income immigrants. Children and Youth Services Review, 73, 24-36. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.11.024 Martinez Jr …
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