Question: In Why Both Social Structure and Culture Matter in a Holistic Analysis of Inner-City Poverty by William Julius Wilson (2010) he states, “Social structure refers to the way social positions, social roles, and networks of social relationships are arranged in our institutions, such as the economy, polity, education, and the organization of the family” (2010; 201). He goes on to state that “Social processes refer to the ‘machinery’ of society that exists to promote ongoing relations between members of the larger group” (2010: 201). Defining and then bringing together the concepts of social structure and borrowing from the lectures, readings, and books discuss how the social context shapes the lives of the poor. I am uploading all documents necessary to draw information from to write this paper. be sure to use info from all of them to write the paper. the paper is 67% of my final exam grade.

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Question: In Why Both Social Structure and Culture Matter in a Holistic Analysis of Inner-City Poverty by William Julius Wilson (2010) he states, “Social structure refers to the way social positions, social roles, and networks of social relationships are arranged in our institutions, such as the economy, polity, education, and the organization of the family” (2010; 201). He goes on to state that “Social processes refer to the ‘machinery’ of society that exists to promote ongoing relations between members of the larger group” (2010: 201). Defining and then bringing together the concepts of social structure and borrowing from the lectures, readings, and books discuss how the social context shapes the lives of the poor. I am uploading all documents necessary to draw information from to write this paper. be sure to use info from all of them to write the paper. the paper is 67% of my final exam grade.

 

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Video 1: Introduction to Social Constructionism and Ideal Type • • • Constructionism – schemes of perception, thought, and action create social structures o Meaning is derived from social symbols and interactions rather than biology or nature o We create our social welfare Max Weber (1864-1920) o Greatest individual contribution to sociology o Born to prosperous family in Germany o Studied how society differed from earlier versions o Believed in power of technology o Shared Marx’s idea on social conflict (rich make rules to benefit themselves) o Disagreed with Marx on materialism Ideal Type – an abstract statement of the essential characteristics of any social phenomenon o Defines a society in its pure form, not what is good or best Video 2: Introduction to Ideas of Esping Anderson • • • • Wrote The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (1993) o Discusses political economy ▪ Brings together law, economics, political science, culture, and sociology o Basic concept ▪ Argues that there is a relationship between the political structure of a country and the welfare policies created by the state ▪ Different types of nation states have different institutions and policies Main Point o The main point of Esping Anderson’s work is that variations in welfare policy are related to disparities found in institutional arrangements within different nation-state models in the post-industrial world Question For Every Country o Is it the state’s responsibility for the well-being of its citizens? o What’s the relationship between the marketplace, the family and the state? The Answer o Terms ▪ Social rights – citizens’ right to access state health resources • Considered a commodity in US • Social Democratic & Conservative nations view social rights as protected and a duty of the state o State is provider and protecter • Liberal nations view social rights as a commodity Video 3: Social Democratic Nations • • • • • Social Democratic Nation Characteristics o English-speaking nations ▪ Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Netherlands o Social rights are separate from the market ▪ Are based on citizenship rather than earnings, contributions, or performance o De-commodification o Strive for equality of all citizens o Provides full employment of all citizens o State cares for children, elderly, etc o Gender equality is a top policy goal o Social rights are protected by state law Social Democratic Policy Examples o Education ▪ High schoolers • >18 receive governmental support ▪ College students • Receive allowance from government covering books, clothes, and food o Housing allowance for young adults ▪ Finland, Denmark, and Sweden ▪ Results in: • Independence from parents and extended family • Prolong marriage o Finland women get married around 29 ▪ Men 32 Creation of Swedish Welfare State o Reasons: ▪ Slow to modernize • Modernized after Great Depression ▪ Little infrastructure prior to Great Depression o Results: ▪ Extensive government intervention ▪ Rise of Social Democratic Party/Labor Party Historical Context for Swedish Family and Child Policies o How did these policies come about? ▪ Low birth rates ▪ 1980s fertility drop • Resulted in more government support Daycare in Social Democratic Countries o All Scandinavian countries have government supported daycare • • o Sweden ▪ Parents stay at home for first year of life ▪ Plenty of daycare ▪ After 1st year most children are in organized care o Norway ▪ Cash-for-care payments for stay at home parents ▪ Shortage of daycare Cohabitation, Marriage, and Children o Policies are associated with social values o Dates back to 19th century and earlier ▪ Long engagements are accepted ▪ Census records indicate: • Children born within marriage even when parents were engaged o Swedish cohabitation ▪ High ▪ Universal ▪ Occurs before marriage ▪ Blurring line between engagement and marriage reinforced in 1970s by Marxist ideologies Not a Woman’s Utopia o Occupations in Sweden are highly segregated ▪ Far greater than in US o Finnish Women ▪ Work ▪ Care for children ▪ Spend more hours on housework ▪ High risk of being victims of violence Video 4: Conservative Nations • • • Access to social rights are all about status Conservative Countries o Germany, Italy, France o Social rights are NOT a commodity o Provided by the state o Based on status position ▪ Family, class, religion, or social German Welfare Policy o Emphasizes marriage ▪ Tax deduction for “financially secure families” o Traditional division of labor ▪ School kids out at noon, someone has to be there to care for them o 2006 Report ▪ Policies favor women staying out of the workplace ▪ Policies crafted in a way that support women caring for children at home o Disadvantaged ▪ Single women ▪ Low-income families Video 5: Liberal Welfare State • • Liberal Welfare State o US, Canada, & Great Britain ▪ Provide limited social insurance o Social Programs ▪ For the poor and working class ▪ Means-tested o For the wellbeing of the state, not the wellbeing of the people ▪ Driven by market forces ▪ State only intervenes when the market fails o During the Great Recession of 2008 who did the government help? ▪ Major corporations US Welfare Policy o No comprehensive family or child policy ▪ Poverty rate for US children is 21.5% ▪ Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 6.9% o Policies main focus: ▪ Providing services to the poor ▪ Reducing the tax burden on families o Health Insurance ▪ No national health insurance program for all citizens, only poor and elderly ▪ Employer-based ▪ Low-income children with no access to Medicaid get State Child Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) o Family Leave ▪ US Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993 • 3 months of unpaid leave • Other countries provided MINIMUM of 3 months PAID leave o Education ▪ Only in US & Canada does university education cost ▪ Most countries have early childhood education programs • US Headstart severely underfunded o No child/family cash benefits Importance of studying History • • • • • • • • • • Most basic way that history matters is that it gives us perspective By studying history we know where our institutions, values, and ideas come from Learn to think critically about our positions by studying history US leaders have used lessons from history to make decisions about whether or not to: o Expand the scope of war o How to interpret actions of our adversaries o How to gauge the best options for coaxing growth and security out of utter destruction Most important thing that we can learn from history is: what we cannot learn from history History can just as easily be misused like it can provide useful insights Handle historical analogies with care o Can reinforce biases Context matters Perspective is required “history is not dead, infact very much alive” Feudal England: Our British Roots: History of Social Welfare Video • • • • Chapter 1: o Political structure and social organization o Aristocracy owned land o Serfs worked the land & were taken care of by the aristocracy Chapter 2: o Structure meant limited social mobility o No personal choice or free will o Being rich/poor determined by God ▪ Rich responsible for the poor even when sick and elderly Chapter 3: o Sources of aid o Church – redistribute resources rich to poor o Hospitals – care of sick, elderly, disabled, poor, orphans Political structure and beliefs would change History of Social Welfare Feudal England PPT • • • • • Feudal England: o Political organization o Social structure o Social beliefs o Sources of aid o Fall of Feudalism Social/Political Structure of Feudal England: o Mid 1300s feudal system in England dominated: ▪ Landed gentry ▪ Landless serfs o Serfs/Peasants ▪ Made living by working land o In return lords (landowners) took care of them in sickness and old age Feudal England: o Social/political meant: ▪ Little mobility/class change ▪ No free will or agency o Judeo-Christian beliefs supported by the arrangement: ▪ The fact that some were rich/poor were ordained by God ▪ Outside of a person’s control ▪ Individuals were not at fault if poor Feudal System – Sources of Aid o Hospitals: ▪ Refuge for old, sick, poor, disabled, orphans o Churches: ▪ Primary role of church was to redistribute resources from rich to poor ▪ Emphasized the following values: • Good deeds • Love of one’s enemies • Entry to heave through charity Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601 o 1st legislation for public support for needy o Supported by local taxes o Created categories for eligible recipients: ▪ Dependent children • No relatives to care for them • Given to a citizen who placed the lowest bid • Citizen was reimbursed to provide child’s care • Boys apprentice until 24 • Girls domestic help until 21 ▪ • Impotent poor • Physically/mentally unable to work • Given: o Indoor relief – placed inside almshouses or poorhouses o Outdoor relief – live outside the institution but receive material help in the form of help, clothing, and fuel ▪ Able-body poor • Forced to work or suffer jail or other punishment including death • Considered underserving of help because they should be able to care for themselves Fall of Feudalism o Trade increased o Technology bloomed o Rigid hierarchy of power and social expectation declined o Urban factories – people moved to cities for work and better wages o Power of central government increased o Church lost political and financial power o People gained mobility and independence but lost safety and security of feudal system Oliver Twist • • • Published under pseudonym “Boz” from 1837 to 1839 by Charles Dickens Realistically depicted the impoverished London underworld Illustrated his belief that poverty leads to crime 1601 Poor Law • • • Relates to the fact that parishes had to look after all of the impotent poor, the old, and the fragile within society Came about because Henry VII had gotten rid of all monasteries o He created Church of England so there was no longer monks from the monasteries and nuns from convents to look after all the poor ▪ Parishes took over this role “As a community we have a responsibility to take care of all vulnerable people within our society” The Poor Law • • • On August 24th, 1830 Thomas Huntingford writes to Home Secretary Robert Peel: o Expressed his concern at the growing number of paupers o Rising number of “idle poor” ▪ Those refusing work o Commit beggars to House of Correction in North Leach ▪ Often full o Wants beggars whipped on the spot by the nearest constable The “new” Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834: o Aka “The New Poor Law” o Laborhouses for idle poor, able bodied poor, and impotent poor o Represented major change to how poverty was addressed o Much harsher than old law: ▪ Husbands and wives separated ▪ Children separated from parents ▪ Inmates put to menial and sometimes meaningless hard labor o Andover Workhouse Scandal: ▪ Inmates set task of crushing bones were so hungry that they were found eating the rotten bone marrow o Under old Law: ▪ Each parish responsible for looking after its own poor from funds raised by a special rate paid by wealthier inhabitants Thomas Wallace Fiona Hill • • Why did Fiona Hill become an American? o Because her father always wanted someone in the family to immigrate to America o America offered her opportunities that she never would have had in England o The region of England the she’s from as well as her family has deep ties to the US ▪ From same region as George Washington What does her change of citizenship say about the history of English vs American Social Class? o She states that her “working class accent” would have been looked down upon in England o Perhaps she is suggesting that being poor or working class in America is far better than being so in England because of the opportunities presented in America History of American Social Welfare • • • • Colonization to 1800s o Based on English Laws o Beliefs: ▪ Individualism & freedom ▪ Concern for the well-being of others o Institutional view of welfare: ▪ Society’s ongoing responsibility to provide its citizens with needed benefits and resources ▪ Decided on worthy vs non-worthy poor ▪ Administered by the government with the church’s help o Result ▪ Public & private • Administered by gov’t with church’s help o Policies: ▪ Communities provided aid for residents and shunned strangers ▪ Community member would take turns housing the poor • Reduce taxes for community ▪ Free medical attention ▪ Children would become apprentice Civil War (1861-1865) o Impacted the political structure of the US o Fought over state rights versus federal rights Industrialization (1870-1900) o Brought about three trends: ▪ Industrialization ▪ Urbanization ▪ Immigration o Brought economic growth from manufacturing and technology but increased social problems ▪ Workers working long hours in unsafe conditions ▪ No laws against child labor o Industrialization meant concentration of industry o People moved from rural to urban to find work and prosperity ▪ Crowed, old, and unsanitary cities Child Welfare Law 1874 o Origin of protective services ▪ Etta Wheeler NYC relief worker for poor • NY Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals ▪ Mary Ellen Wilson age 9 had been indentured servant for 18 months • Tied to bed, whipped, and stabbed with scissors • Treated worse than an animal, but no law to protect her Progressive Period (1900-1930) • • • • Creation of social structure that would advance social justice NAACP created in 1909 o Largest and oldest US civil rights organization o Formed bc of lynching of African Americans o 1500 chapters in all 50 states o Protects rights of AA through: ▪ Legal proceedings ▪ Enforcement of civil rights laws ▪ Information 1911-1919: Pension Programs o Aided single mothers Mental Hygiene Movement o Concept of mental illness replaces idea/word of insanity o Psychotherapy developed as a treatment o Treatment occurred in a community rather than an institution The Great Depression • • • Stock market crash of 1929 destroyed the idea that individuals control their own destiny Citizens became increasingly reliant on the federal gov’t to control and provide social services Huge decreases in manufacturing productivity and wages o Banks closed o Farmers lost everything o Urban poverty The Great Depression Political • FDR president from 1933-1945 o Created the New Deal ▪ Relief for unemployed by jobs ▪ Temporary, necessary, expedient until those who were employable could be employed o New Deal Policies: ▪ Helped unemployed workers and their families ▪ General relief – single men ▪ Work relief – gave government jobs to those who were unemployed • Ex: Civil Conservation Corps & Works Progress Administration o New Deal Categorical Assistance ▪ Most controversial type of assistance ▪ Given to poor families which children, blind, elderly ▪ People feared it would create dependence and would discourage people from working ▪ Ex: Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) o New Deal Social Insurance Programs ▪ Social Security & Unemployment are the most popular ▪ Encouraged people to work ▪ Ex: Social Security Act of 1935 Great Expansion 1960s: President Lyndon B. Johnson • • • Created social programs Declared “War on Poverty” 1963-1969 o WoP Initiatives: ▪ Head Start ▪ Food Stamps ▪ Medicare ▪ Medicaid ▪ HUD Rehabilitation for the poor was the cornerstone of his policies o Eliminate poverty and provide a high quality of life for all o Poor families needed encouragement and training to acquire needed job skills o Poor were poor due to a culture of poverty ▪ Pattern of values, norms, and expectations passed from one generation to the next that discourages from taking advantage of social and economic opportunities o Goal to have volunteers in poor neighborhoods fighting poverty by increasing jobs, resources, and opportunities 1970s: Richard Nixon Conservatism • • Nixon – 1969-1974 Family Assistance Plan (FAP) o Every unemployed family of four would receive at least $1600 a year from the federal gov’t o Working poor keep benefits until earning reach approx. $4000 then benefits were halted o Encouraged single mothers to work and married mothers to stay home o Women’s roles were class based ▪ Welfare recipients were criticized as lazy, unmotivated, and not trying hard enough while middle class women were criticized for working 1970s Conservatism • Gerald Ford (1974-1977) & Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) Ronald “the Retard” Reagan 1981-1989 • • • • Attitudes of Conservative Social Welfare o Reduced taxes o Increased the defense o Slashed welfare programs and social welfare spending Discounted the importance of racism and discrimination o Blacks and Hispanics could be successful Gender & Social Welfare o Males = rugged individuals, could accomplish anything o Women: ▪ Primarily domestic functions ▪ 100,000 families eliminated from AFDC eligibility ▪ Welfare expenditure down 30% per capita Program Reductions: o AFDC o Food Stamps o Medicaid o School lunch and other nutritional programs o Family Planning o Subsidized Housing o Legal Aid o Drug Abuse Counseling George HW Bush & 1980s continued • • Attitude: o Consistent with Reagan o Overcome poverty through individual hard work and initiative programs o Stressed volunteer charity, school vouchers, enterprise zones o Federal gov’t should back away Social Context: o Results: ▪ AFDC recipients rose o 1980s saw increases in: ▪ Defense budget ▪ Numbers of people living in poverty ▪ Homelessness ▪ Racial Tension President Bill Clinton • Replaced AFDC with TANF in 1996 o Major incentives for changes in TANF were to reduce the welfare rolls by putting a 5 year limit on all welfare benefits Culture of Poverty • • • Values Shaping 1960s Welfare Reform o Charles Darwin – genes determine survival of species o Culture of poverty – replaces the concept of biology determining success with culture determining the success of individuals Culture of Poverty: Based on Social Science Research o Work of Franklin E Frazier (1894-1962) ▪ Social Work Professor ▪ Atlanta School of Social Work ▪ Howard University’s Department of Sociology and School of Social ▪ Activist, militant for social justice ▪ Firt black president of the American Sociological Society ▪ BOOK: • “The Negro Family in the United States” o Black poverty result of slavery, emancipation, and urbanization • Franklin found: o Slavery destroyed family structures and culture leaving the family dysfunctional impacting the family well into 20th century • Family is matriarchal , and position and authority of black males in family was weakened o Outcome: ▪ Pathological family system resulting in poverty, illegitimacy, crime, delinquency, and the cultural pathology passed through generations creating self-perpetuating cycle of hopelessness • Sociology has not been able to prove the black family matriarchal, southern blacks commit more crimes or have dysfunctional families • Study of blacks immigrating to north found: o Immigrants less likely to commit crime and more likely to be working o More likely to be married Oscar Lewis o Studied poor Hispanics in Puerto Rico & NY o Found: ▪ ▪ ▪ • • • • They lacked engagement and integration in the wider social order They did not follow mainstream society Lacked standard middle class values • Lack of or …
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