onclusion Two or more people or groups can have different or conflicting rights that can be impossible to satisfy. This doesn’t mean that they do not hold the right but what it means is that satisfying one’s right may override the satisfaction of the other person’s or group’s right. Therefore, it can be argued that people should try to enforce the rights of animals in the world should n only when the right of other animals, whether domestic or wild, are not violated. …

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Instructions

Course Objectives:

  • CO3. Create a framework for developing one’s own ethical and moral philosophy.

Description:

The Week 7 Final Paper is the culmination of all of the ethical theories and philosophers we have studied in PHIL200 and is an extension of the Week 3 Paper Proposal Assignment. Please consider the following:

  • Please re-read the directions on the weeks 2 and 3 assignments.
  • At least half of the paper should discuss the theory and then you will apply it in arguing for or against some position on the contemporary topic.
  • The paper should be between 1500 – 2000 words.
  • Please submit as an attachment, MS Word or Word compatible document, double-spaced with one inch margins (consider using one of the attached templates based on your chosen style, APA or MLA).
  • Please use the citation style of your program of study. The reference page/bibliography does not need to be annotated, but you should have properly formatted in-text citations and a complete reference page.

 

UNFORMATTED ATTACHMENT PREVIEW

Running head: PHILOSOPHY PROPOSAL Philosophy proposal Patricia Sumpter American Public University 3/21/2021 1 PHILOSOPHY PROPOSAL 2 Introduction Philosophy is a term that that can be generally defined as the love of wisdom. Philosophy is an active activity that people undertake whenever they seek to understand various fundamental truths about the world they live, themselves, or their relationship with the world and each other. Philosophy mainly focuses on the development of models from which theories are made. The developed theories are used or applied in various situations to explain why things happen the way they do or predict what is likely to occur in the future. Philosophy is divided into four primary categories, which are logic, ethics, epistemology, and metaphysics. This philosophy proposal will focus on the right theory and discuss a contemporary topic to discuss its application. Resources to be used Hadley, J. (2019). Two Problems for Animal Rights Theory. In Animal Neopragmatism (pp. 109-131). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. Hadley discusses the two dimensions of problems that the animal rights theory faces: the placement problem or equivocation problem. The equivocation problem relates to when an animal commits a fallacy of equivocation. Hardley argues that the animal and human minds differ by degree and that this difference may not have any ethical implications. However, he adds that this difference has different semantic implications during the argument for animal rights. Hardly argues that the animal rights theory has several similarities with many religious ethical theories. PHILOSOPHY PROPOSAL 3 Anthony, K., & Onah, G. A. (2020). Animal Farms and Ethics: A View of Rights Theory. Bulletin of Pure & Applied Sciences-Zoology, (2). Many animals, especially those in intensive farming, suffer terribly and do not benefit from their existence. Anthony and Onah argue that animals have the right to be brought up without violating their rights. They continue to say that they have a moral right to life and not to be mistreated in any way by the application of the right theory. Animals should also not be modified to suffer in any manner or limit their wellbeing. The authors write to end intensive farming methods that some firms employ and are not animal friendly. They also criticize firms that rear animals for their meat or skin only and do not care about the animals’ wellbeing. Anima Ethics,(2021). Right theories: The general approach. https://www.animalethics.org/ethics-animals-section/ethical-theories-nonhuman-animals/rightstheories-the-generalapproach/#:~:text=Rights%20theories%20maintain%20that%20there,be%20good %20for%20other%20reasons. Animal Ethics provides information and knowledge about animal rights and ethics. It also promotes debates, discussions, and relationships about animals and the general public. Animal Ethics explains the various types of rights and rights theories and provides an argument against animals being referred to as right holders. PETA, (2021). Why Animal Rights? Retrieved from https://www.peta.org/about-peta/whypeta/why-animal-rights/ PETA is an organization dedicated to defend and establish the rights of animals. PHILOSOPHY PROPOSAL 4 The right theory Rights are justified claims that a person or a group holds to protect their general interests. Human being s have the right to pursue happiness, life, and liberty, among other aspects. More recent rights include civil rights and liberties to assembly and freedom of speech. Some people propose that economic, social, and welfare rights should incorporate minimum food, shelter, and medical care levels. The right theory maintains that there are acts or words one cannot do or say against another individual because they are the holder of moral rights. A right, therefore, ensures that interest is not frustrated even if doing so might be beneficial to the right holder. Rights have varying meanings and interpretations in ethics and law. In ethics, rights are viewed as moral rights of right and wrong, while in law, rights are interpreted in form or legal rights. Both ethical and legal rights protect an individual’s interests or a group, but they are two different things. Types of right theories There are two major views of right theories, which are constructive and realistic views. The realistic view argues that right holders have rights as one or part of their intrinsic or natural features. This means that an individual’s rights have to be respected and recognized, and if this does not happen, the rights holder naturally struggles until they are respected or recognized. The constructive view of the right theory is the opposite of the realistic view, where it holds that the right holder’s rights are not intrinsic. The view argues that rights holders are granted their rights by other people. Right theories can be categorized under deontological theory, which maintains that specific norms should be obeyed regardless of the circumstance one finds himself in or whenever an opportunity to observe them arises. Right theories can also be categorized under PHILOSOPHY PROPOSAL 5 consequentialist theories, which focus on minimizing the number of respected rights and minimizing the number of violated rights. This is regardless of whether they are violated now or in the future or regardless of who respects or violates them. Correlativity of rights Correlativity is the reciprocal relation or mutual dependence between two or more things or individuals. The correlativity of duties and rights is quite a challenging one to define or point out clearly. Correlativity between responsibilities and rights can be distinguished in two different aspects: the logical and the moral aspects. Moral correlativity says that for an individual to hold specific rights, they must have specific duties that the individual has accepted to carry out. This aspect can be controversial, especially when it concerns people with mental incapability or animals. On the other r hand, logical correlativity is concerned with the rights one holds imply to other people’s duties. For instance, if an individual has the right to get something and there is no one who can help the individual get what he or she intends to get, then everyone has the duty not to prevent that individual from achieving what they intend. However, there are a lot of questions that are asked regarding the logical correlativity aspect making it appear vague. Contemporary topic: What rights should animals have? Rights theory focuses on the protection and respect of other people’s or individual interests. This argument can be applied where animals are involved. Therefore, animals have the right for their interests to be equally considered and respected. For example, cats have an interest in not being mistreated or the pain inflicted on them unnecessarily. This interest has to be recognized and considered by people who interact with them. Even though animals have their interests, the interests are not always the same as those of human beings. Some human interests PHILOSOPHY PROPOSAL 6 are irrelevant to animals, just like how some adults’ interests are different from those of children. For example, a cow does not have any interest in voting, meaning that it has no right to vote. The right to vote is also meaningless to a child since a child has no interest in voting. The argument for animals as right holders Individuals and organizations such as People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) that support human rights argue that animals are inherently worth different from what people think. Most people believe that animals are only supposed to be useful to them, and they decide what to do with them and how to treat them. According to PETA, animal rights believers hold that every creature with a will to live has the right to live a life free from suffering and pain. They also hold that people who violate the rights of some animals do so out of prejudice. Prejudice makes people deny others’ rights based on race, sexual orientation, gender, or species. This explains why people slaughter and eat a pig but make a dog their companion or pet. Dogs and pigs can experience a similar capacity of fear and pain when being slaughtered, but pigs’ rights against pain and fear are violated based on their species. The argument against animals as right holders According to Animal Ethics, a right can only be held if the holders can respect others’ rights or can enjoy the right given to them. Anima Ethics continues to say that animals cannot be able to respect the right of other animals. They cannot also enjoy the right given to them, and therefore they can never become right holders. Rights go hand in hand with claims, and animals cannot make claims whenever their rights are violated, and their claims cannot also be respected. If animals’ rights are enforced, it can be argued that some animals also violate the rights of other animals. This is because animals like lions rely on other animals like gazelles for food. PHILOSOPHY PROPOSAL 7 Conclusion Two or more people or groups can have different or conflicting rights that can be impossible to satisfy. This doesn’t mean that they do not hold the right but what it means is that satisfying one’s right may override the satisfaction of the other person’s or group’s right. Therefore, it can be argued that people should try to enforce the rights of animals in the world should n only when the right of other animals, whether domestic or wild, are not violated. …
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