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Moral RelativismIn Section B of Chapter 8, you read about moral relativism (also called moral subjectivism). After reading the text and watching the video below, describe what you understand the moral relativist position to be, explain any problems you see with regard to accepting moral relativism, and then discuss at least 2 specific points from the Gilbert Harman reading in our text that you either agree or disagree with; explain why. Finally, ARE you a moral relativist? Or do you reject moral relativism? Defend your position.NB: Often in this discussion students discuss cultural relativism, a specific kind of moral relativism, but for this thread, we are discussing moral relativism in general rather than cultural relativism. Make sure to follow the instructions given in Unit 1 in the Discussion Forums: Protocol and Grading Criteria folder for making specific references to texts, videos, and podcasts; posts that do not make references according to these instructions will not receive full credit.Works Linked/Cited:“What is Ethical Relativism?” YouTube, uploaded by Philo-notes, 11 Dec. 2019, What is Ethical Relativism? – PHILO-notes Whiteboard Edition – YouTube. Accessed 3 June 2020.
Obligations toward OthersIn Section C of Chapter 8, you read about egoism and altruism. Peter Singer, who appears in the video below, is a contemporary utilitarian (utilitarians favor an altruistic view) who argues that we should use our disposable income to help others, including the poor in countries other than our own. Tara Smith, whom you read in Chapter 8, discusses egoism, a view that opposes altruism. After watching the video below and reading the Smith text in Chapter 8, respond to the following questions: What is one point from the video that resonated with you and why? What is one point from the Smith reading that resonated with you and why? Explain your stance toward both egoism and altruism. Be specific; provide reasons and examples for your position(s).Make sure to follow the instructions given in Unit 1 in the Discussion Forums: Protocol and Grading Criteria folder for making specific references to texts, videos, and podcasts; posts that do not make references according to these instructions will not receive full credit.Works Linked/Cited:“Peter Singer – Effective Altruism, an Introduction.” YouTube, uploaded by Science, Technology & the Future. 28 Aug. 2014, Peter Singer – Effective Altruism, an Introduction – YouTube. Accessed 19 Aug. 2020.
The Trolley ProblemWatch the below video version of the trolley problem, a well-known moral dilemma analyzed from a utilitarian perspective.The first version of the problem is sometimes called the “switch dilemma.” This is based upon the idea of a runaway trolley which is moving down the tracks toward five people who will be killed if it the trolley continues on its present course. You are a bystander and can save these five people by pulling a switch and diverting the trolley onto a different set of tracks. The added problem is that this switch will place the trolley on a different track that has only one person on it; however, if you pull the switch that person will be killed. Is it morally permissible to divert the trolley and prevent five deaths at the cost of one? Most people say it is, regardless of culture, gender, ethnicity, religion, or nationality.Next we have what is sometimes called the “footbridge dilemma.” In this case, the trolley is again headed for five people. However, you are now standing on a footbridge over the tracks. Leaning over the side of the bridge is a very fat man (fat enough to stop the trolley). You are standing next to him on the footbridge and realize that the only way to stop the trolley and save the five people is to push this man off the footbridge and onto the tracks. Is that morally permissible? Most people say it is not, regardless of culture, gender, ethnicity, religion, or nationality.Answer the following: What is your own moral analysis of these two cases? Provide reasons to justify your position(s). If you agree with the majority of people regarding these two cases, then what makes it acceptable to sacrifice one person to save five others in the switch dilemma but not in the footbridge case? If you disagree with the majority of people regarding these cases, what explanation do you offer?
NB: In this thread, students often say what they would or wouldn’t do, could or couldn’t do, and then explain their feelings related to their choice (e.g. ‘I would pull the lever in the first scenario, but I could never push the man off the bridge because I would feel too guilty.’ Or ‘I would push the lever because I wouldn’t have to touch anybody, but I couldn’t push the man off the bridge because I wouldn’t want to directly murder someone.’) But a moral analysis is an analysis about why an action might be moral or immoral, with reasons. While we of course have emotional responses in considering what to do, such responses do not reason about the morality of an action. So, in your response, do not answer the question ‘how would you feel about each scenario?’ but rather ‘what would be the morally right action in each scenario?’To avoid simply saying what you would or wouldn’t do, could or couldn’t do, perhaps begin with something along the lines of ‘the morally right action in the first scenario is to do x because’….(give your justification for what you claim is the morally right action), and ‘the morally right action in the second scenario is to do x because’…(and again give your justification for what you claim is the morally right action).Make sure to follow the instructions given in Unit 1 in the Discussion Forums: Protocol and Grading Criteria folder for making specific references to texts, videos, and podcasts; posts that do not make references according to these instructions will not receive full credit.And just for fun, here’s a clip from The Good Place dealing with the trolley problem (and if you haven’t watched The Good Place, you should!):Works Linked/Cited:“The Trolley Problem.” YouTube, uploaded by Patrick Donovan, 7 Feb. 2008, The Trolley Problem – YouTube. Accessed 15 Aug. 2019.“The Trolley Problem. The Good Place.” YouTube, uploaded by Comedy Bites, 28 Jan. 2020, The Trolley Problem | The Good Place | Comedy Bites – YouTube. Accessed 28 Mar. 2020.