In your response post you must cite the text one time in proper ASA format. Important Note For All Academic Discussion Boards Please refrain from using clips from Youtube that are entitled “Crash Course Sociology”. These clips simulate a lecture; hence, when these clips are used by a student they generally “describe” concepts instead of “applying” concepts. Need to focus on a specific topic and “apply” concepts from the current chapter. Hints On Possible Concepts to Cover From This Chapter: Science; empirical evidence;

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Sociology SEVENTEENTH EDITION Chapter 2 Sociological Investigation Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives 2.1 Explain how scientific evidence often challenges common sense. 2.2 Describe sociology’s three research orientations. 2.3 Identify the importance of gender and ethics in sociological research. 2.4 Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Power of Society Do we simply “decide” our future? Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Basics of Sociological Investigation (1 of 4) 2.1 Explain how scientific evidence often challenges common sense. • Sociological investigation starts with two simple requirements: – Apply the sociological perspective. – Be curious and ask questions. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Basics of Sociological Investigation (2 of 4) Science as One Type of Truth • People’s “truths” differ the world over, and we often encounter “facts” at odds with our own. This Peace Corps volunteer on a small island in the South Pacific learned a crucial lesson—that other people often see things in a different way. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Basics of Sociological Investigation (3 of 4) • Science – Another way of knowing – A logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation This Peace Corps volunteer on a small island in the South Pacific learned a crucial lesson—that other people often see things in a different way. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Basics of Sociological Investigation (4 of 4) Common Sense versus Scientific Evidence • True or false? – Poor people are far more likely than rich people to break the law. – The United States is a middle-class society in which most people are more or less equal. – Most poor people don’t want to work. – Differences in the behavior of females and males are just “human nature.” – People change as they grow old, losing interests as they focus on their health. – Most people marry because they are in love. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Three Ways to Do Sociology (1 of 10) 2.2 Describe sociology’s three research orientations. • Three research orientations – Positivist sociology – Interpretive sociology – Critical sociology Positivist Sociology • The study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Three Ways to Do Sociology (2 of 10) • Concepts, variables, and measurement – Concept: a mental construct that represents some part of the world in a simplified form – Variable: a concept whose value changes from case to case – Measurement: a procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case • For a measurement to be useful, it must be reliable and valid. – Reliability: Consistency in measurement – Validity: Actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Three Ways to Do Sociology (3 of 10) • Sociologists use three different descriptive statistics to report averages. – Mode: Value that occurs most often in a series of numbers – Mean: Arithmetic average of a series of numbers – Median: Value that occurs midway in a series of numbers arranged from lowest to highest Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Three Ways to Do Sociology (4 of 10) • Objectivity – Personal neutrality in conducting research • Value-free research – Sociologists as dispassionate and detached (Weber) • Replication – Repetition of research by other investigators – Limit distortion caused by personal values Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Three Ways to Do Sociology (5 of 10) • Cause and effect – A relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another • Types of variables – Independent: variable that causes the change – Dependent: variable that changes (value depends upon the independent variable) Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Three Ways to Do Sociology (6 of 10) • Conditions for cause and effect to be considered – Existence of a correlation – The independent (causal) variable precedes the dependent variable in time. – No evidence that a third variable could be causing a spurious correlation between the two. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 2–1 Correlation and Cause: An Example (1 of 2) Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 2–1 Correlation and Cause: An Example (2 of 2) Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Three Ways to Do Sociology (7 of 10) • Limitations of scientific sociology – Human behavior is too complex to predict precisely any individual’s actions. – The mere presence of the researcher might affect the behavior being studied. – Social patterns change. – Sociologists are part of the world they study, making value-free research difficult. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Three Ways to Do Sociology (8 of 10) Interpretive Sociology • The study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world • Proper focus of sociology is interpretation—understanding meaning that people create in their everyday lives • Key lay in Verstehen (Weber) Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Three Ways to Do Sociology (9 of 10) • Positivist – Focuses on actions – Claims objective reality exists – Favors quantitative data – Best suited for laboratory-based research • Interpretive – Focuses on understanding of actions – Claims that reality is subjective – Favors qualitative data – Often uses personal interviews and field research Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Three Ways to Do Sociology (10 of 10) Critical Sociology • The study of society that focuses on the need for social change • Developed in reaction to perceived limitations of positivist sociology • Rejects the idea that society exists in natural system with fixed order • Posits the point of sociology is not just to research but also to change it (Marx) Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Summing Up: Three Research Orientations in Sociology Three Research Orientations in Sociology Blank Positivist Sociology Interpretive Sociology Critical Sociology What is reality? Society is an orderly system. There is an objective reality “out there.” Society is ongoing interaction. People construct reality as they attach meanings to their behavior. Society is patterns of inequality. Reality is that some categories of people dominate others. How do we conduct research? Using a scientific orientation, the researcher carefully observes behavior, gathering empirical, ideally quantitative, data. Researcher tries to be a neutral observer. Seeking to look “deeper” than outward behavior, the researcher focuses on subjective meaning. The researcher gathers qualitative data, discovering the subjective sense people make of their world. Researcher is a participant. Seeking to go beyond positivism’s focus on studying the world as it is, the researcher is guided by politics and uses research as a strategy to bring about desired social change. Researcher is an activist. Symbolic-interaction approach Social-conflict approach Corresponding Structural-functional theoretical approach approach Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Issues Affecting Sociological Research (1 of 4) 2.3 Identify the importance of gender and ethics in sociological research. Gender • Gender shapes research in several ways (Eichler) – Androcentricity – Gynocentricity – Overgeneralizing – Gender blindness – Double standards – Interference Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Issues Affecting Sociological Research (2 of 4) • If you ask only male subjects about their attitudes or actions, you may be able to support conclusions about “men” but not more generally about “people.” • What would a research have to do to ensure that research data support conclusions about all of society? Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Issues Affecting Sociological Research (3 of 4) Research Ethics • The American Sociological Association guidelines for conducting research: – Technical competence and fair-mindedness – Full inclusion and disclosure – Protection of subjects – Informed consent – Funding source disclosure – Cultural sensitivity Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Issues Affecting Sociological Research (4 of 4) Thinking About Diversity • Marin and Marin (1991) identified guidelines for conducting research with Hispanic people – Be careful with terms. – Be aware of cultural differences. – Anticipate family dynamics. – Take your time. – Think about personal space. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Research Methods (1 of 9) 2.4 Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. Testing a Hypothesis: The Experiment • Experiment – Research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions • Hypothesis – A statement of a possible relationship between two (or more) variables Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Research Methods (2 of 9) • Steps in an experiment – Specify dependent/independent variables. – Measure the dependent variable. – Expose dependent variable to independent variable. – Re-measure dependent variable to see if predicted change took place. – If no change, modify hypothesis and re-test. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Research Methods (3 of 9) • Hawthorne effect – Change in subject’s behavior caused by the awareness of being studied – Classic Western Electric Company study (1930s) Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Research Methods (4 of 9) • The “Stanford County Prison” experiment – Zimbardo’s research helps explain why violence is a common element in our society’s prisons. – His work demonstrates the dangers and required ethics in sociological investigation. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Research Methods (5 of 9) Asking Questions: Survey Research • Population – People who are the focus of the research • Sample – Part of the population representing the whole • Random sample – Draw sample from population so every element has an equal chance of selection • Interviews – A series of questions that a researcher administers in person – Optimized by standardization of technique Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Research Methods (6 of 9) In the Field: Participant Observation • Participant observation – Investigators systematically observe people while joining in their routine activities Using Available Data: Existing Sources • Sociologists analyze existing sources – Most widely used statistics are gathered by government agencies. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved National Map 2–1 Census Participation Rates across the United States Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Research Methods (7 of 9) Research Methods and Theory • Inductive logical thought – Transforms specific observations into general theory – “Increases” from specific to general • Deductive logical thought – Transforms general theory into specific hypotheses suitable for testing – “Decreases” from general to specific Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Research Methods (8 of 9) Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Research Methods (9 of 9) Putting It All Together: Ten Steps in Sociological Investigation • Select and define topic • Review the literature • Develop key questions to ask • Assess requirements for study • Consider ethical issues • Select a research methodology • Collect the data • Interpret the findings • State conclusions • Publish the findings Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Photo Credits 28: Ray Warren USA/Alamy Stock Photo; 30: Photo by Reuben Burrell/Courtesy of Lois Benjamin; 31: Rick Rycroft/AP Images; 36: Travel Ink/Gallo Images/Getty Images; 37: Homer W Sykes/Alamy Stock Photo; 37: Image Source/Alamy Stock Photo; 40: Marco Di Lauro/News/Getty Images; 41: Ted Foxx/Alamy Stock Photo; 43: Philip G. Zimbardo, Inc.; 43: Philip G. Zimbardo, Inc.; 43: ©IFC Films/Courtesy Everett Collection; 45: Gino Santa Maria/Fotolia; 50: Joseph Ewoodzie; 52: Bowdoin College Library; 56: Fuse/Getty Images; 56: Fuse/Getty Images; 56: Fancy/Veer/Corbis; 57: Fuse/Getty Images. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Copyright Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Length: APPROX. 350 NO MORE OR LESS. I will provide the chapter slides so you can have a better understanding of this chapter. Your task in this discussion board is to display your critical thinking skills by applying some of the sociological concepts you learned in the chapter to contemporary society. To accomplish this you must find a Youtube clip (be sure to include the link at the beginning of your main post) and apply at least two concepts (you can use more if you like) from the chapter to the content of your selected clip in your main post. In your response post you must cite the text one time in proper ASA format. Important Note For All Academic Discussion Boards Please refrain from using clips from Youtube that are entitled “Crash Course Sociology”. These clips simulate a lecture; hence, when these clips are used by a student they generally “describe” concepts instead of “applying” concepts. Need to focus on a specific topic and “apply” concepts from the current chapter. Hints On Possible Concepts to Cover From This Chapter: Science; empirical evidence; Positivist sociology; quantitative research; qualitative research; concept; variable; measurement; operationalize a variable; reliability; validity; cause and effect; independent variable; dependent variable; correlation; spurious correlation; objectivity; replication; interpretive sociology; critical sociology; research method; hypothesis; Hawthorne effect; survey; sample; population; questionnaire; and participant observation Reference: Macionis, John. 2017. Sociology. Pearson Learning. …
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