In practice, these companies use one of two paths to implement six sigma: DMAIC, which contains five phases ( Define , Measure , Analyze , Improve , Control ) , and DMADV which includes ( Define , Measure , Analyze , Design , Verify ). The first path is covered in details by our course materials.

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Six Sigma Implementations

undefinedSix Sigma is a common quality management practice used to support the businesses improvements on different levels organizational, processes. Numerous successful cases by well-known companies demonstrated this methodology`s efficiency such as in Motorola, Amazon, General Electric…..etc.

undefinedIn practice, these companies use one of two paths to implement six sigma: DMAIC, which contains five phases ( Define , Measure , Analyze , Improve , Control ) , and DMADV which includes ( Define , Measure , Analyze , Design , Verify ). The first path is covered in details by our course materials.

undefinedIn this assessment, picture yourself as a Quality Records Investigator. In order to improve a current process, product or service, you were requested by the quality manager to create a project plan using six-sigma methodology specifically (DMAIC).

 

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College of Administrative and Financial Sciences Assignment 3 Deadline: 17/04/2021 @ 23:59 Course Name: Quality management Student’s Name Course Code: 424 Student’s ID Number: Semester: II CRN: Academic Year: 1441/1442 H For Instructor’s Use only Instructor’s Name: Students’ Grade: 5 Marks Obtained/Out of Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY 1. The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder. 2. Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted. 3. Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page. 4. Students must mention question number clearly in their answer. 5. Late submission will NOT be accepted. 6. Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions. 7. All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism). 8. Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted. 9. Assignment – 3 should be submitted on or before the end of Week- 11 . Learning Outcome: 1. Recognize the importance of quality management theory, principles, and practices applied in businesses on national and international levels. (1.1) 2. Use quality improvement tools and practices for continuous improvement to achieve the organizational change and transformation. ( 2.2) Six Sigma Implementations Six Sigma is a common quality management practice used to support the businesses improvements on different levels organizational, processes. Numerous successful cases by wellknown companies demonstrated this methodology`s efficiency such as in Motorola, Amazon, General Electric…..etc. In practice, these companies use one of two paths to implement six sigma: DMAIC, which contains five phases ( Define , Measure , Analyze , Improve , Control ) , and DMADV which includes ( Define , Measure , Analyze , Design , Verify ). The first path is covered in details by our course materials. In this assessment, picture yourself as a Quality Records Investigator. In order to improve a current process, product or service, you were requested by the quality manager to create a project plan using six-sigma methodology specifically (DMAIC). To work on this assignment, choose a product or service, or process that you think it needs to be improved. Create a project plan that explains the following: 1. Define Stage : Product or Service Information: ( 1 point ) ( 100 – 200 words) • Choose either product, service, or process to improve. • State the project scope, two objectives, and the duration. • Identify the project`s team (key stakeholders). 2. Measure stage: ( 1 point) ( 100 – 150 words ) • Use a process flowchart to identify the current process for your choice ( Inputs , action , outputs) • Choose a measurement for your analysis (Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio). 3. Analyze stage : (1 point) ( 100 – 150 words ) Based on your process flowchart and your desired outcomes, Define the Sources of Process Variation. (Causes of problem, or non-value processes) 4. Improve stage 🙁 1 point ) ( 100 – 120 words) • Suggest no less than two recommendations to improve the current process. • Present at least two conditions that have to be existed to guarantee the project success. 5. Control stage 🙁 1 point ) (100 – 150 words) • Identify two tangible & intangible measurements that the firm can use to evaluate their performance after the improvement. • In which way the company can help their employees to embrace the new changes (training, reward system …) The Handbook for Quality Management 00_Pyzdek_FM_pi-xii.indd 1 11/16/12 6:09 PM About the Authors Thomas Pyzdek is a Six Sigma consultant with more than 40 years of experience in the field. His clients include Ford, McDonald’s, Intuit, Boeing, Seagate, Avon Products, and many other companies. Mr. Pyzdek is a recipient of the American Society for Quality Edwards Medal for outstanding contributions to the practice of quality management and the E.L. Grant Medal for outstanding leadership in the development and presentation of meritorious educational programs in quality. He has also received a Lean Six Sigma Leadership award from the American Quality Institute. Paul Keller is president and chief operating officer with Quality America, Inc. He has developed and implemented successful Six Sigma and quality improvement programs in service and manufacturing environments. He is the author of several books, including The Six Sigma Handbook, Third Edition (coauthor), and Six Sigma Demystified. 00_Pyzdek_FM_pi-xii.indd 2 11/16/12 6:09 PM The Handbook for Quality Management A Complete Guide to Operational Excellence Thomas Pyzdek Paul Keller Second Edition New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto 00_Pyzdek_FM_pi-xii.indd 3 11/16/12 6:09 PM Cataloging-in-Publication Data is on file with the Library of Congress. McGraw-Hill books are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. To contact a representative please e-mail us at b ulksales@mcgraw-hill.com. The Handbook for Quality Management Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0   DOC/DOC   1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 ISBN 978-0-07-179924-9 MHID 0-07-179924-9 The pages within this book were printed on acid-free paper. Sponsoring Editor Judy Bass Acquisitions Coordinator Bridget Thoreson Editorial Supervisor David E. Fogarty Project Manager Vastavikta Sharma, Cenveo Publisher Services Copy Editor Kate Bresnahan Proofreader Surendra Nath Shivam, Cenveo Publisher Services Indexer ARC Films Inc. Production Supervisor Pamela A. Pelton Composition Cenveo Publisher Services Art Director, Cover Jeff Weeks Information contained in this work has been obtained by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) from sources believed to be reliable. However, neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein, and neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This work is published with the understanding that McGraw-Hill and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services. If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought. 00_Pyzdek_FM_pi-xii.indd 4 11/16/12 6:09 PM Contents     Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Part I Business-Integrated Quality Systems 1 Organizational Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Theory of Organization Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Functional/Hierarchical Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matrix Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cross-Functional Organization Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process- or Product-Based (Horizontal) Organization Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forms of Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5 6 8 9 10 12 2 The Quality Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Juran Trilogy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Related Business Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regulatory Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Product Liability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Environmental Issues Relating to the Quality Function . . . . . . . 15 17 23 23 24 24 28 3 Approaches to Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deming’s Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total Quality Control in Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ISO 9000 Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deming Prize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . European Quality Award . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total Quality Management (TQM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Six Sigma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 34 36 41 45 48 49 51 52 4 Customer-Focused Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Strategic Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organizational Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strategy Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 67 69 Part II Integrated Planning 5 v 00_Pyzdek_FM_pi-xii.indd 5 11/16/12 6:09 PM vi Contents 6 Strategic Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Possibilities-Based Strategic Decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strategic Development Using Constraint Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . The Systems Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Constraint Management Principles and Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tools of Constraint Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Constraint Management Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 72 74 75 78 87 98 Understanding Customer Expectations and Needs . . . . . . . . . Customer Classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Customer Identification and Segmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collecting Data on Customer Expectations and Needs . . . . . . . Customer Service and Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Focus Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 108 110 113 114 117 127 7 Benchmarking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Getting Started with Benchmarking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Why Benchmarking Efforts Fail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 8 Organizational Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assessing Quality Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organizational Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cost of Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 139 140 142 Part III Process Control 9 00_Pyzdek_FM_pi-xii.indd 6 Quantifying Process Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Descriptive Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enumerative and Analytic Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acceptance Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Statistical Control Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variable Control Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Charts for Attributes Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Chart Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Chart Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Specifications for Process Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Capability Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How to Perform a Process Capability Study . . . . . . . . . . Statistical Analysis of Process Capability Data . . . . . . . . Interpreting Capability Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 155 155 158 160 165 176 189 190 196 200 200 202 205 11/16/12 6:09 PM Contents 10 Quality Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of Quality Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Product Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Systems Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Internal Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two-Party Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Third-Party Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Desk Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning and Conducting the Audit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Auditor Qualifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Internal Quality Surveys as Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steps in Conducting an Audit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Audit Reporting Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Post-Audit Activities (Corrective Action, Verification) . . . . Product, Process, and Materials Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Identification of Materials and Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purchased Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Customer-Supplied Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work-in-Process (WIP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finished Goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lot Traceability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Materials Segregation Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Configuration Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deviations and Waivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 212 212 214 214 215 215 215 216 216 217 218 218 219 220 221 221 223 224 224 224 224 225 225 225 225 226 11 Supply Chain Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope of Vendor Quality Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evaluating Vendor Quality Capability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vendor Quality Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Post-Award Surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vendor Rating Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partnership and Alliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 230 230 233 234 235 236 237 vii Part IV Continuous Improvement 12 00_Pyzdek_FM_pi-xii.indd 7 Effective Change Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 11/16/12 6:09 PM viii Contents Mechanisms Used by Change Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Building Buy-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DMAIC/DMADV Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 248 254 254 262 Define Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work Breakdown Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pareto Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project Charters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Top-Level Process Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Team Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Team Dynamics Management, Including Conflict Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stages in Group Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Common Team Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Productive Group Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Counterproductive Group Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Management’s Role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 267 268 269 270 281 285 285 287 288 289 289 290 292 14 Measure Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metric Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Establishing Process Baselines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement Systems Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Levels of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 295 296 297 298 298 301 15 Analyze Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Value Stream Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analyze Sources of Process Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quality Function Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cause-and-Effect Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scatter Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Process Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correlation and Regression Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Least-Squares Fit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interpretation of Computer Output for Regression Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 307 314 315 318 319 324 324 326 13 00_Pyzdek_FM_pi-xii.indd 8 328 11/16/1 …
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