Identify and describe the presented problem/issue and population as closely as possible. What do you find especially helpful in your classmate’s descriptions. What helpful data are used to support the main points.

I’m working on a sociology discussion question and need an explanation to help me understand better.


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2. Identify social problem/issue and population


Identify and describe the presented problem/issue and population as closely as possible. What do you find especially helpful in your classmate’s descriptions. What helpful data are used to support the main points.

3. Arguments and Rationales

What are the main arguments your classmate makes about the problem’s relevance to social work practice & policy. What are the main arguments your classmate makes about the size/composition of the population/community. What do you find especially helpful in your classmate’s arguments and rationales.

4. APA Headings and citations

Does your classmate’s paper use APA7 formatting and citations. How does your classmate’s use of APA 7 help present concepts and ideas.



1 Literature Review – Rough Draft Katerina Reyes May 2nd, 2021 San Jose State University 100w Social Work Writing Workshop Dr. Lucia Tanassi 2 Social Problem In the age of new technology and growing media, it is more common to have more than one technology device than it is to have none at all. As humans grow more reliant and technology becomes more capable, the introduction to technology is happening earlier in life for youths than that of 10 years ago. Two systematic reviews have shown that media multitasking is associated with negative effects on cognitive control, academic performance, and socioemotional functioning in youth. The long term effects in teenagers and adults is underway and becoming more prevalent in research and studies to discover. However, with growing concerns as mental health conditions among youth are on the high rise, there is little research on the effects of “screen time” for children of younger years. Sedentary behavior is defined as “tending to spend much time seated; somewhat inactive.” Oxford Languages (2021) and is becoming more common for children at a younger age. This behavior is directly linked to obesity, aggressive behavior, and negative impacts on attention span and language development. Carson, V., & Janssen, I. (2012). In addition, Multiple pediatric organizations recommend no more than 1-2 hours of screen time for children under the age of two and yet it has been reported that 90% of children under the age of two have already been introduced to television in America. (Duch, H., Fisher, E. M., Ensari, I., & Harrington, A. (2013). Populations Affected In terms of the populations that are affected by this uptick in screen time, there are a couple different groups that are affected at different degrees. Direct populations affected are the youth that are experiencing this over exposure of screen time and media usage. These effects can be seen in their developmental delays that often translate as speech delays and hot executive 3 function; the psychological step process guided by high emotion(s). The rates of media use for two to four year olds doubled in two years (2011-2013) jumping from 39% to 80%, in America. Canadian Paediatric Society, Digital Health Task Force (2017). This in turn can affect social interaction among other children and adults. A study found that children with higher weekday TV watching starting at age 2 were associated with hot (EF) at age 4 ½ . Corkin, all (2021). As children settle into the routine of hot executive function, it can manifest in explosive reactions to inconveniences and social interactions they experience. This nonregulation of emotions not only affects the child but also the others that are interacting with them. Moreover, parents, teachers, other professionals, and children that interact with the children with hot executive functions. There have been correlations between excessive screen time in children and high household chaos. Emond, J. et al (2018). Household chaos is characterized as “disorganization, high levels of confusion, and hurriedness in the home.” Emond, J. et al (2018) Homes with high household chaos had children in the home watching at least 14 more hours of television each week compared to children in a lower quartile. As household chaos becomes a constant for a child and their family, the effects can be observed in their academic performance and behavior. The lack of structure at home can cause attention difficulties and In addition, there can be stress and strain on the parents who try to cope with the reactions or make sense of the reactions themselves. It is very possible that a child can be well behaved at home and only exhibit “hot” reactions with other students around them as excessive screen time can alter social interactions. Relevance to SW All these findings have a relevance to social work in the way it will help social workers assess family dynamics and plan interventions. When a child exhibits bad social skills and 4 interactions, families can be given tools to help cope with the reactions but the behavior may not improve if the child is still exposed to excessive screen time. When a social worker is informed of the excessive usage, the tools and interventions can be tailored around that factor. This in turn can also help the way a social worker advocates for the child and family. Speaking in terms of household homeostasis, a social worker may observe a chaotic household and not be able to pinpoint the root cause without understanding excessive tv watching contributes to the dysfunction. In addition to that, the long term effects of excessive screen time can be seen later down the road for children. If they were exposed to screen time in the preschool age and are exhibiting developmental challenges at age 6 – 8, social workers may do a historical review of the child’s development; it would be helpful to understand and assess the amount of screen time they were exposed to during the first five years of their life. This knowledge also has a relevance to the ethics and values of the social work practice. In the NASW Code of Ethics, competence is a value that is used to continuously strive for the increase of professional knowledge and skills and apply them to practice. Though this research is relatively new due to the technological advances and conveniences over the last 10 years, it is important to gain this knowledge to assist children and their families. Additionally this knowledge also ties into the value of service in the ethics of social work. Social workers should be able to give the service needed to address the social problems the client encounters. As technology becomes more involved in everyday life, it is important to be able to understand the benefits of technology but inform the client and the public about the implications and negative benefits of excessive screen time at certain ages. Implications for Social Work Practice and Policy 5 In a data survey, it was found that a consistent rate of 52% of children between the ages of 3-4 do not attend any type of nursery/preschool prior to kindergarten from 2008-2019. ACS table B1400 (2020). It can be inferred that of the 52% there is a big percentage of the population could potentially be exposed to excessive screen time. Though there are no policies currently in place to address this social problem, there can be a chance to implement this knowledge on an educational level. When more data is available and gathered together, it can influence the way media and technology is introduced and used in the preschool setting. Additionally, this can be implemented in parenting courses which can be used as a social work practice when informing clients or parents of clients who may need assistance coping with the behaviors that come along with over use of screen time. The way the public is informed can change as well; though technology is convenient and has made great advancement, the reliance on devices can be better understood and observed. As stated before, this knowledge will change the way social workers assess and advocate for their clients and families involved. Interventions will be more tailored to the clients and the types of over exposure they are experiencing. Though delays can occur, that does not mean the child is delayed for the rest of their life. Now having this data can change the way that social workers approach educational development. It can help devise a different way that teachers and education advocates approach students with developmental delays. Moreover it can also change the way students are observed and assessed in social settings. Sources of Data Looking at the data provided, there are strengths and limitations that come with them. One of the studies found that excessive screen time can result in delayed speech, obesity, and aggressive behavior. While this is a strength in evidence, it showed limitations on the extent of 6 these effects. The study did not explain what long term effects would look like. In another study, information is shared that 90% of two year olds are introduced to television but does not indicate how much television they may be viewing. This shows limitations without knowing if the population is being over exposed to watching television. The limitations of the research on household chaos shows strength in the correlation between screen time and the home environment. It is important to discuss the different ways that excessive screen time can affect different avenues of the child’s life, as well as their family. The limitations seen in this study is the way household chaos is exhibited. The study does not indicate if there are different levels of household chaos. Without a scale, wrong assumptions can be made about the household environment while reading the study. …
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