I have realized that developing engaged employees requires a consideration of many factors including and superseding money. In the future, I plan COMPENSATION IN THE WORKPLACE 4 to assemble and apply all these factors so that I can have a more engaged workforce who believe in their value towards our organization. COMPENSATION IN THE WORKPLACE 5 Reference Smith, D. (2015). Most people have no idea whether they’re paid fairly. Harvard Business Review, 12. …

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The American Government Once Offered Widely Affordable Child Care … 77 Years Ago

The Reading report article is attached. 🚩


Read the assigned article and write a short paper (Maximum of three pages in length, double spaced). (Two pages is good)

The report should have two sections:

Section I – Write a brief summary of the article
Section II – Describe thoughts/opinions of the article and how you plan to apply what you learned from the article in your career.

Clearly label both Section I and Section II. 🚩

(Maximum of three pages in length, double spaced)



The American Government Once Offered Widely Affordable Child Care … 77 Years Ago National Public Radio – October 31, 20208:00 AM ET Andrea Hsu Nicole Xu for NPR Rachael Shannon gets nostalgic when she thinks of the life she lived in Germany until just a couple of years ago. While she and her husband worked, their children spent their days in child care, creating awesome crafts, building pillow forts and going on outings to farms where they’d dig up potatoes. “It was like wow times 10,” says Shannon, who worked for a U.S. government contractor. For this highly imaginative, full-time care for two kids, the Shannons paid about $750 a month, roughly a quarter of the cost of comparable care in the Washington, D.C., area where they returned to in 2018. Today, in the middle of the pandemic, Shannon is one of millions of parents at their wit’s end over the lack of good child care options here in the U.S. Safe, reliable child care was already expensive and difficult to obtain before the pandemic. Now it is even more so. With increased costs due to social distancing and sanitation requirements, many day care centers have been forced to close. The pandemic-induced child care crisis has revealed the fragility of the system and ignited a debate about why it can’t be better. Why do parents in the world’s wealthiest nation pay such a high price to have both children and jobs? “I wish more Americans knew what parents are living like in other countries,” Rachael Shannon says. “I’m jealous, and I’m angry.” The German system of highly subsidized child care is the norm across Europe. It might sound like a utopian option for many American parents today, but the United States government offered its own version 77 years ago. During World War II, as men headed off to war, women were called on to help run factories and perform all sorts of other jobs. But it was clear that it would be impossible to pull off unless children were taken care of. Child care was seen as a matter of national security. Under the Lanham Act, day care centers, funded by federal and local dollars, opened up in communities impacted by the war. In 1943, families paid 50 cents per day, equivalent to $7.70 a day now. “The main priority was bringing women into defense factories,” says historian Sonya Michel, author of the book Children’s Interests/Mothers’ Rights: The Shaping of America’s Child Care Policy. More than half a million children were cared for during the war, Michel says. There was plenty of opposition to the effort — some argued that separating children from their mothers for long hours would result in psychological damage. But it was overcome with a promise that government-funded child care would be “for the duration only.” The scene in 1943 at a war workers’ nursery in Oakland, Calif., where children were served cod liver oil and tomato juice in the morning, a nourishing lunch midday, and milk and crackers in the afternoon. Ann Rosener/Library of Congress “What that meant was as soon as the war was over, mothers were expected to return home. And of course the federal funding would be withdrawn,” Michel says. “As soon as the war was over, almost all the centers closed down right away.” Decades later, in 1971, the U.S. came close to a universal child care system, where the poorest children could attend for free and others on a sliding scale. Congress passed such a bill, but it was vetoed by President Richard Nixon, who wrote about the “family-weakening implications of the system it envisions.” STRETCHED: WORKING PARENTS’ JUGGLING ACT How Politics Killed Universal Child Care In The 1970s Till today, the U.S. does not heavily subsidize child care, and the subsidies that do exist reach only 1 in 6 eligible children. Most parents in the U.S. shoulder the high costs of child care on their own, according to analysis from the Center for American Progress. As a result, parents in the U.S. pay too much, and child care workers earn too little, says Ashley Williams, a senior policy analyst with the Center for the Study of Child Care Employment at the University of California, Berkeley, and a former preschool teacher herself. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, child care workers earn a median wage of $11.65 per hour. Their jobs, which are taxing in normal times, are now more stressful than ever, putting strain on a workforce that is almost exclusively women and 40% people of color. The pandemic has made clear the need for more investment in the system, Williams says. “Parents need somewhere for their children to be safe and cared for so that they can engage in the economy.” But there is one employer in the U.S. that does make child care viable for both families and workers: the military. The Defense Department’s Child Development Program has its origins in the end of the draft. The military was no longer composed of single men in barracks. A volunteer force meant there were now wives and children to consider. “There was a saying in the early days — you recruit the soldier, but you retain the family,” says M.A. Lucas, an early childhood educator who was tapped in 1980 to build a formal child care system for the U.S. Army. Even with the experience of World War II, it was not an easy sell. For the first couple of years, she avoided talking about children. “It didn’t mean we weren’t thinking about children, but we didn’t talk about children. We talked about the impact of the lack of child care on the military force,” says Lucas, who was a military spouse herself. She focused on readiness, and through anonymous surveys, demonstrated the immense need. “I asked soldiers at all levels, officers and enlisted, if they lost time from the job because of a lack of child care,” she says. “It was an astounding revelation to find the high number of folks that admitted to it.” Twenty percent of the workforce reported losing duty time. Lucas went to work, guided by a mission statement that remains largely unchanged today: To reduce the conflict between parental responsibilities and the military mission. She spent 31 years on the project. Under Lucas’s leadership, the Army built day cares on bases for easy pickup and drop-off and kept them open for long hours to accommodate shifts. Like other jobs in the military, there was a training regimen for caregivers, and they were paid competitive wages. Fees were charged on a sliding scale to make the care affordable. But running child care in this manner is costly. The Department of Defense spends more than $1 billion a year on child care. “It shows that the federal government can do it when it wants to,” says historian Michel. But despite the proof of concept, Americans remain allergic to the idea of funding such programs outside of times of need. “Maybe Congress and the government rises to the occasion in an emergency, but does it last afterward? That’s always the problem,” Michel says. Currently, a bill that would greatly expand federal child care subsidies sits idle. The fate of the Child Care for Working Families Act will likely be determined in the next Congress. Running head: COMPENSATION IN THE WORKPLACE Compensation in the Workplace Institution Affiliation Date 1 COMPENSATION IN THE WORKPLACE 2 Section I – A brief Summary of the Article The article’s primary focus is on pay and compensation to employees in the job market. The author, an employee at PayScale, presents a study conducted by their firm to determine employees’ attitudes and beliefs concerning their compensation. The selected study interviewed 70,000 employees in different sectors to investigate whether they knew if they were paid fairly and how that had affected their engagement at work (Smith (2015). The research also looked into organizations’ retention rates whenever employees had clarity on their compensation and when they did not. The results showed that most employees did not know the truth about whether they were compensated fairly or not. Smith (2015) explains that 35% of employees who were overpaid thought they were underpaid, 64% of those who were well-paid thought they were underpaid, and 83% of those underpaid knew they were underpaid. From the analysis, the author derived that employees misconceive their salaries, and many think they deserve more than what their employers gave them. Furthermore, women believed that they were paid less than their male counterparts even if they had the same salaries. The author supposed that this misconception came from the engraved societal belief that women are generally underpaid than men in the job market. The article also touched on the implications of these beliefs and attitudes on employee engagement. Smith (2015) found that having a clear conversation about compensation can significantly reduce employee turnover and increase engagement. This conclusion came from the fact that employers who did not have conversations with their employees to tell them why they are paid more or less recorded lower levels of engagement at work. As a result, the article COMPENSATION IN THE WORKPLACE 3 concluded that it was better for employers to couple conversations with compensation than for them to raise salaries and skip the much-needed conversation about compensation. Section II – My Thoughts/Opinions of the Article and How I Plan to Apply What I learned from the Article in My career The article was enlightening and it uncovered many false assumptions I had before I read it. previously, I believed that many employees were aware of their job brackets, salaries, and the general market price or the labor they offer their employees. However, the results presented by Smith introduced me to a new perspective that employees were indeed unclear about where they fall in the general market compensation bracket. Also, I found the breakdown of statistics accurate, easy to understand, and meaningful to employers and aspiring leaders. Smith described the results of the interview accurately so that it was easy to derive conclusions. I also thought that the gender perspective of compensation was adequately articulated because I think that it is common for women to assume that they are paid less. After all, this was the trend for centuries before gender equality laws were actualized. The information provided in the article will prove helpful in my career in different ways. first, whenever I become an employer, I will be sure to have the ‘compensation conversation’ with my employees. While many employers overlook this, I believe that it will help me maintain an engaged and satisfied workforce in the long-run resulting in high retention rates. Furthermore, in the future as a leader, I look forward to encouraging this conversation wherever I work with the ultimate goal of contributing positively to the organizational goals and mission achievement. Finally, the article has enabled me to get a multi-faceted view on employee engagement and retention which I plan to use in my career. I have realized that developing engaged employees requires a consideration of many factors including and superseding money. In the future, I plan COMPENSATION IN THE WORKPLACE 4 to assemble and apply all these factors so that I can have a more engaged workforce who believe in their value towards our organization. COMPENSATION IN THE WORKPLACE 5 Reference Smith, D. (2015). Most people have no idea whether they’re paid fairly. Harvard Business Review, 12. …
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