“How many of you… “ or “Did you know that…” Quotations ○ Ex. “An injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere” Stating a fact/stat Songs/Music (keep it short though) Videos/Images (keep it short though) Body Movement (ex. Dance; skits) Poems Jokes?

I’m working on a political science report and need support to help me learn.


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The resolution I’m working on is “we should decriminalize psychedelic drugs”. I am in the negative side/position of this resolution and need help making an outline for it.

  • Must be in Roman Numeral Format
  • Must be broken down in a logical and coherent format
  • Must have a clear introduction, body, and conclusion
  • The body must include at least three distinct, well organized, and supported arguments
    • Include at least 3 outside sources that are credible and current.
  • Must be in full complete sentences
  • Works Cited page (MLA or APA)

I’ve attached files that may help show how it’s supposed to be constructed.


COMM 104 Los Angeles Pierce College Negative Position Speech Outline
COMM 104 Los Angeles Pierce College Negative Position Speech Outline


Overview ● ● ● Introductions and Conclusions Supporting Material Citing Your Sources Preacher’s Rule 1. 2. 3. Tell them what you’re going to say (Introduction) Tell them (Body) Tell them what you just said (Conclusion) Introductions & Conclusions Introductions What’s in it? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Attention getter Introduction of Topic Audience Relevance or Credibility Statement Thesis Statement Preview of Main Points Please note: The introduction should only be about 10%-15% of your speech Attention Getter Grab your audience’s attention Typically, you don’t want to reveal the topic/thesis in the attention getter Don’t make it too long Think of it as a teaser Types of Attention Getters ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Questions (rhetorical) ○ Ex. “How many of you… “ or “Did you know that…” Quotations ○ Ex. “An injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere” Stating a fact/stat Songs/Music (keep it short though) Videos/Images (keep it short though) Body Movement (ex. Dance; skits) Poems Jokes? (be careful, keep it tasteful, not everyone has the same humor) Introduction of Topic Simply state your topic in your introduction ● For example, if your topic about the history of high heels, you would state “I will talk about the history of high heels” The ‘Introduction of Topic’ is not the same as a thesis statement Audience Relevance Why is this topic relevant to the audience? What is the relationship between the topic and the audience? For example: ● ● Topic: Online classes Audience relevance statement: This is relevant to everyone in class because all of us has had to take an online class due to COVID-19. Credibility Statement Why are you credible to talk about this speech? How can people trust you to speak on this topic? For example: ● ● Topic: Online classes Credibility statement: I’m credible to talk about this because I’ve taken many online classes. Preview of Main Points Clearly indicate what the main points of your speech are in a simple manner Do not start explaining or elaborating your main points For example: ● ● Topic: Online classes Preview of Main Points: Let’s cover the pros and cons of online classes. Note: Here, I can see that there are 2 main points. First main point is the pros. Second main point is the cons. EXAMPLE I. II. III. IV. Attention Getter: Did you know that the LAUSD’s student population of over 600,000 K-12 students, and about 970,000 college students in Los Angeles were forced to transition to online learning. Introduce Topic:Today I am going to speak about the advantages and disadvantages of online learning Credibility Statement and/or Relevance Statement: As a fellow college student, I am also affected by the sudden transition to online learning, and I have several family members who have had various experiences with this change. Preview of Main Points: I will be highlighting some of the general benefits as well as some of the drawbacks of learning online. (Transition: To start, I will speak about some of the advantages of online learning.) Conclusion 1. 2. 3. 4. Restate Topic Restate Thesis* Review Main Points Memorable Closing Statement Supporting Material TYPES OF SUPPORTING MATERIAL ● ● ● ● ● Examples – illustrate or describe things Narrative – stories Testimony – firsthand findings, opinions by experts or non-experts Facts – documented occurrences/events Statistics – data in numerical form Examples ● ● ● ● EXAMPLE: Technology is distracting in classrooms. For example, the person who sits in front me is always on imessage during the lecture. NARRATIVES: If you keep lying, people will stop listening to you at one point. The boy who cried wolf kept crying wolf when there was no wolf so when he cried wolf when there really was a wolf, no one believed him. TESTIMONY: Weed is good for people with chronic pain. According to researcher Mark Ware, MD, assistant professor of anesthesia and family medicine explains that it helps reduce pain and helps patients sleep better. FACTS/STATISTICS: America has too many mass shootings. According to gunviolencearchive.org, there have been 488 mass shootings in the United States in 2020 so far. Citing Your Sources WHERE TO FIND SOURCES ● ● ● ● ● Internet Books, Encyclopedia, Dictionaries Journals Magazines Television/Radio FINDING CREDIBLE SOURCES ONLINE ● ● ● Check domains: com, edu, gov, org Check their about us page Consider your topic ○ Ex. Medicine and health = Center for Disease Control & National Institute of Health versus WebMD ● Consider the source credibility (source’s reputation) ● What about Wikipedia? ○ How can we use it effectively and ethically? CITING SOURCES ● Oral citations – spoken citations that credits the source ○ ○ ● Show more credibility by including a source qualifier ○ ● What is the source’s credibility Sources should be cited online and on outline ○ ○ ● Whenever you provide information that other people’s ideas or words, you should give credit If it is beyond your personal knowledge and experience and common knowledge, it is outside knowledge, and in turn, should be cited. Introduce the author, website, article/research title Ex. According to the New York Times article on “Presidential Debate Format”, author John Smith states that… Do not need to cite common knowledge ○ Ex. Trump is the current President of the United States Outline Template *NOTE: this template is to help you get started. However, the length of your outline should be longer than what I have listed below. Each point or subpoint should be in complete sentences. Introduction I. Attention Getter II. Introduction of Topic III. Audience Relevance IV. Thesis (Your position) V. Preview of Main Points Body I. Main Point 1 – Argument 1 (Introduce your argument) a. Explanation i. Support (ex. example, testimony, fact/stat, narrative) 1. Elaboration b. Explanation i. Support 1. Elaboration (Transition statement: a sentence that indicates that you’re moving onto the next point. Ex. “now that I’ve discussed argument 1, let’s discuss argument 2) II. Main Point 2 – Argument 2 a. Explanation i. Support 1. Elaboration b. Explanation i. Support 1. Elaboration (Transition statement:) III. Main Point 3 – Argument 3 a. Explanation i. Support 1. Elaboration b. Explanation i. Support 1. Elaboration Conclusion I. Restate Topic II. Review Main Points III. Memorable Closing Statement …
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