goals Briefly discuss which one you would choose, and why, if you only had funding for the creation of a program focusing on only one of the four strategies Discussion Topic #7 – Chapter 6 – Client Advocacy (300 words minimum for main posting with 200 word replies) Chapter 6 presents the importance of client advocacy not only to help clients achieve a sense of power, but also to help create social/environmental change. Read the examples in the text addressing the Counseling-Advocacy Process

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Developmental/Preventive Interventions

 

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Discussion Topic #6 – Chapter 5 – Developmental/Preventive Interventions (300 words minimum for main posting with 200 word replies) Chapter 5 addresses prevention strategies for mental health challenges. Some of the strategies presented are broad based and are considered “primary prevention”, or interventions that take place before a problem occurs. The chapter illustrates four major interventions: stress management programs (p. 133); health and wellness interventions (p. 139); parenting and family-focused programs (p. 143), and life skills training (p. 145). Describe the four interventions and their goals Briefly discuss which one you would choose, and why, if you only had funding for the creation of a program focusing on only one of the four strategies Discussion Topic #7 – Chapter 6 – Client Advocacy (300 words minimum for main posting with 200 word replies) Chapter 6 presents the importance of client advocacy not only to help clients achieve a sense of power, but also to help create social/environmental change. Read the examples in the text addressing the Counseling-Advocacy Process What are some of the questions you might ask an individual who has been imprisoned, is now being released, and wishes to return to their home community? What are some of the interventions you might undertake in order to help this person succeed in their new life? Discussion Topic #8 – Chapter 7 – Community Collaborations and Advocacy (300 words minimum for main posting with 200 word replies) In Chapter 7, you will read about some of the things that community members expect, and the importance of community collaborations. The chapter also addresses self-help organizations. For this discussion: Define the Helper-Therapy principle as described on pages 192-193 Give an example of a self-help group with which you are familiar and describe how the HelperTherapy principle works for that group LEWIS LEWIS DANIELS D’ANDREA GET THE BEST GRADE IN THE SHORTEST TIME POSSIBLE! Visit CengageBrain.com to view more than 10,000 print, digital, and audio study tools. COMMUNITY COUNSELING Your helping hands in the helping professions FOURTH EDITION COMMUNITY COUNSELING A Multicultural -Social Justice Perspective FOURTH EDITION To learn more about Brooks/Cole, visit www.cengage.com/brookscole Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store www.cengagebrain.com JUDITH A. LEWIS MICHAEL D. LEWIS JUDY A. DANIELS MICHAEL J. D’ANDREA This page intentionally left blank Community Counseling A Multicultural-Social Justice Perspective FOURTH EDITION JUDITH A. LEWIS Governors State University, ret. MICHAEL D. LEWIS Governors State University, ret. JUDY A. DANIELS University of Hawaii at Manoa MICHAEL J. D’ANDREA National Institute for Multicultural Competence Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for materials in your areas of interest. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Community Counseling: A Multicultural-Social Justice Perspective, Fourth Edition Judith A. Lewis, Michael D. Lewis, Judy A. Daniels, and Michael J. D’Andrea Publisher/Executive Editor: Linda Schreiber-Ganster Acquisitions Editor: Seth Dobrin Editorial Assistant: Rachel McDonald Marketing Coordinator: Gurpreet Saran Marketing Communications Manager: Tami Strang Content Project Management: PreMediaGlobal Art Director: Caryl Gorska © 2011, 2003 by Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher. For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706 For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at www.cengage.com/permissions Further permissions questions can be emailed to permissionrequest@cengage.com Library of Congress Control Number: 2010935307 Print Buyer: Mary Beth Hennebury ISBN-13: 978-0-495-90335-2 Rights Acquisition Director: Bob Kauser ISBN-10: 0-495-90335-3 Rights Acquisition Specialist, Text: Roberta Broyer Brooks/Cole 20 Davis Drive Belmont, CA 94002-3098 USA Production Service/Compositor: PreMediaGlobal Cover Designer: Gia Giasullo Cover Image: Gia Giasullo Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with office locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, and Japan. Locate your local office at www.cengage.com/global Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. For your course and learning solutions, visit www.cengage.com Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store www.cengagebrain.com. Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. To all the counselors and other mental health professionals who work hard to foster their clients’ psychological empowerment and personal well-being by promoting social justice in our society. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Contents PREFACE x iii ABOU T TH E AU THORS x vi Chapter 1 Community Counseling for the 21st Century 1 21st-Century Community Counseling: Fundamental Assumptions 4 Environmental Contexts 4 Client Strengths and Resources Multiculturalism 8 6 The Link between Individual and Community Development Community Counseling Defined 9 Community 9 10 Multicultural Competence Social Justice 12 11 Healthy Development of Clients and Communities Community Counseling Strategies 14 Facilitating Human Development: Focused Strategies 13 15 Facilitating Human Development: Broad-Based Strategies 16 Facilitating Community Development: Focused Strategies 17 Facilitating Community Development: Broad-Based Strategies A Unified Approach 18 18 Summary 19 References 21 v Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. vi CONTENTS Chapter 2 The Evolution of the Community Counseling Model A People’s History of the Counseling Profession 25 The Progressive Movement 23 27 Jesse Davis: The Genesis of School Guidance Counseling 28 Frank Parsons: The Father of the Counseling Profession 28 The Mental Hygiene Movement The 1910s and 1920s 30 The Impact of World War I The 1920s–1930s 31 29 31 Dealing with the Challenges of the Great Depression The 1940s–1950s 33 The Impact of Carl Rogers’s Counseling Theory 32 33 Advocating Governmental Support for World War II Veterans Extending Vocational Counseling Services to Women During the 1940s 35 34 The Development of New Counseling Organizations in the 1950s 36 Unprecedented Growth of Counselor Education Programs in the 1950s 37 The 1960s and 1970s 38 Lessons Learned 39 New Developmental Counseling Approaches 39 Broadening the Counseling Profession’s Perspective and Effectiveness 40 The Passage of the Community Mental Health Centers Act Managed Care Organizations (MCOs) in the 1970s The 1980s and 1990s 42 The Continued Professionalization of Counseling Acknowledging Professional Contradictions 44 40 41 43 The Rise of the Multicultural Counseling Competency Movement 45 New School Counseling Initiatives in the 1990s 46 Counselors for Social Justice (CSJ) Summary 48 References 47 50 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. vii CONTENTS Chapter 3 Counseling in Context 53 The RESPECTFUL Counseling Framework Religious/Spiritual Identity 54 Economic Class Background Sexual Identity 56 55 Psychological Maturity Ethnic/Racial Identity 53 57 57 Chronological/Developmental Challenges 58 Trauma and Other Threats to One’s Well-Being Family Background and History 59 60 Unique Physical Characteristics 60 Location of Residence and Language Differences 61 Relevance of the RESPECTFUL Framework 61 The RESPECTFUL Counseling Model and Counselor Self-Assessment 62 Assessment 62 The Collaborative Approach to Assessment Strengths-Based Assessment 65 Balancing Demands and Resources Client Conceptualization 63 66 67 Minority Identity Development 70 Counseling Approaches with a Social Justice Orientation Empowerment-Focused Counseling Ecological Counseling 77 74 Feminist Counseling and Therapy Relational-Cultural Therapy 83 79 Summary References 73 84 85 Chapter 4 Outreach to Distressed and Marginalized Clients Addressing Community-Wide Trauma 91 90 Multicultural Competence 91 Community Recovery 93 Addressing Personal Crises 94 Definition of Crisis 94 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. viii CONTENTS The Phases of Crisis 95 Suicide Prevention 97 Addressing Difficult Transitions Model Outreach Programs 99 101 Reaching Out to Marginalized Populations 115 Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Latinos/Latinas: The Inquilinos Boricuas en Acción 116 Gaza Community Mental Health Programme 118 Brazilian Institute for Innovations in Public Health (IBISS) Summary 121 References 120 123 Chapter 5 Developmental/Preventive Interventions An Equation for Psychological Health A Rationale for Prevention 129 127 127 Multicultural Considerations 130 Conceptualizations of Stress 131 The Cultural Specificity of Stress Reactions 132 The Universality of Stress Reactions 133 Stress Management Interventions 133 Altering the Environment 134 Altering Cognitive Responses to Stress Lifestyle Changes 135 Altering Physiological Responses to Stress The Stress Management Workshop 134 136 138 Health Promotion/Wellness Programs 139 Surviving Cancer Competently Intervention Program Team Awareness 141 Wellness Outreach at Work 141 142 Botvin Life Skills Training Health & Wellness Program 142 Parenting and Family-Focused Programs 143 Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) Strengthening Families Program Parenting Programs 144 143 144 Life Skills Training: Promoting Personal Competence Effectiveness of Life Skills Training Programs 146 Promoting Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Competencies 145 147 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. CONTENTS Gazda’s Life Skills Training Model ix 148 The Prepare Curriculum: Goldstein’s Problem-Solving Program 149 Building Social Justice and Advocacy Skills 151 School-Based Programs 151 Community-Based Programs 153 Workshop Development Summary 155 References 154 156 Chapter 6 Client Advocacy 165 Both/And: Decision Points in the Counseling-Advocacy Process 166 The Counseling-Advocacy Process: Examples Example 1: A Runaway Youth 170 170 Example 2: A Physically Challenged Adult 171 Example 3: A Mature Woman Continuing Her Education Client Advocacy and Multiple Oppressions 172 173 The Guerrero Family 173 The Soto/Torres Family 174 Carlos 175 Ramon 176 Fostering a Responsive Helping Network Coalition Building 178 Community-Based Planning 177 179 Summary 181 References 182 Chapter 7 Community Collaboration and Advocacy 184 Community Collaboration 186 Neighborhood Programs 187 Self-Help Organizations 191 Family and Community Projects Community Advocacy 201 Overcoming Powerlessness Summary 203 References 199 203 204 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. x CONTENTS Chapter 8 Social/Political Action Strategies The Counselor’s Contribution to Social/Political Activism 207 Stories to Tell 207 Organizing Skills to Offer Expertise to Share Risks and Benefits 206 207 208 208 Counselors and Social/Political Advocacy: Beginning with the Client 209 Amber and Her Family 210 Linguicism and Immigration Issues Issues Affecting Women 217 214 Chris: An Experience of Middle School Bullying Social/Political Advocacy: The Big Picture Summary 223 References 219 221 223 Chapter 9 Community Counseling in Diverse Community Agency Settings 226 Community Mental Health 227 Facilitating Human Development 227 Facilitating Community Development 231 Career, Vocational, and Employment Settings Facilitating Human Development 234 Facilitating Community Development Family Counseling 237 Facilitating Family Development 232 236 239 Facilitating Community Development 240 Population-Specific Agencies and Programs 242 Populations Defined by Culture, Ethnicity, or National Identity 242 Populations Defined by Gender or Age Group 244 Summary 246 References 247 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. CONTENTS xi Chapter 10 Community Counseling in School Settings 251 A Brief History of School Counseling: Striving for Comprehensiveness 252 The Comprehensive School Guidance Program 252 American School Counselor Association National Standards 253 National Initiative for Transforming School Counseling 254 American School Counselor Association National Model for School Counseling Programs 255 The Current Challenge: Comprehensiveness and Systemic Change 256 School Counseling Components 258 Group Work and Individual Counseling Educational Interventions 259 260 Student Advocacy 260 Systemic Interventions 261 Unifying the Program Components Multicultural Programming 262 Programming for Safe Schools 261 264 Summary 267 References 267 Chapter 11 Managing the Community Counseling Program Planning 270 Needs Assessment 269 270 Goal Setting 273 Decision Making 273 Planning for Implementation 274 Organizing 274 Contrasting Two Organizational Models Future Organizational Challenges Leadership and Supervision 278 275 277 Leadership Style 278 The Five Components of Effective Leadership The Supervisory Relationship Multicultural Supervision Evaluation 288 280 281 284 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. xii CONTENTS Process Evaluation 289 Outcome Evaluation 289 Unique Managerial Challenges Summary References 290 291 292 Chapter 12 Preparing the Competent Community Counselor Counselor Education 295 296 Program Missions 296 Curriculum Infusion 298 Expansive and Contextual Approaches to Counseling Experiential Learning 304 Lifelong Learning 303 306 Summary 309 References 309 Appendix A Multicultural Counseling Competencies 311 Appendix B American Counseling Association (ACA) Advocacy Competencies 316 Appendix C Competencies for Counseling Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Clients 321 Appendix D Advocacy Competencies Self-Assessment Survey CREDITS 326 328 AUTHOR INDEX S UBJECT INDEX 329 334 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, …
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