For this assignment, you will continue the paper you developed in Week 6 (attached) using the same mental health diagnosis (Social Anxiety Disorder) recognized in the DSM-5 and the two different populations (Asian and African American women). You will then compare and contrast each population keeping in mind cultural considerations when goal setting, treatment planning, and choosing appropriate approaches and interventions.

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For this assignment, you will continue the paper you developed in Week 6 (attached) using the same mental health diagnosis (Social Anxiety Disorder) recognized in the DSM-5 and the two different populations (Asian and African American women). You will then compare and contrast each population keeping in mind cultural considerations when goal setting, treatment planning, and choosing appropriate approaches and interventions.

 

UNFORMATTED ATTACHMENT PREVIEW

5/27/2021 Cultural Awareness Treatment Plan Scoring Guide Cultural Awareness Treatment Plan Scoring Guide Due Date: End of Week 8 Percentage of Course Grade: 15%. NONPERFORMANCE BASIC PROFICIENT DISTINGUISHED Compare and contrast cultural considerations for goal setting and treatment planning. 20% Does not compare and contrast cultural considerations for goal setting and treatment planning. Compares and contrasts cultural considerations for goal setting and treatment planning, but does not make clear distinctions. Compared and contrasts cultural considerations for goal setting and treatment planning. Evaluates the cultural considerations of at least two cultures and effectively compares and contrasts for goal setting and treatment planning, effectively integrating cited information. Compare and contrast cultural considerations for at least two counseling approaches to treatment. 20% Does not compare and contrast cultural considerations for at least two counseling approaches to treatment. Compares and contrasts cultural considerations for at least two counseling approaches to treatment, but does not make clear how they are supported by current research. Compares and contrasts cultural considerations for at least two counseling approaches to treatment. Evaluates cultural considerations and compares and contrasts cultural considerations for at least two counseling approaches to treatment, effectively integrating cited information. Evidence cultural sensitivity to goal setting and treatment planning. 20% Does not evidence cultural sensitivity to goal setting and treatment planning phases. Evidences cultural sensitivity to the goal setting and treatment planning phases but considerations are limited in scope. Evidences cultural sensitivity to goal setting and treatment planning. Evidences cultural sensitivity to the goal setting and treatment planning phases and makes clear distinctions between the cultures based on the literature. Provide a selfreflection of cultural awareness and competence and display insight regarding personal or professional growth and development. 20% Does not provide self-reflection of cultural awareness and competence. Provides a selfreflection of cultural awareness and competence, but does not display insight regarding personal or professional growth and development. Provides a selfreflection of cultural awareness and competence and displays insight regarding personal or professional growth and development. Provides self-reflection of cultural awareness and competence and displays insight regarding personal or professional growth and development integrating cited information from the research. Convey purpose in an appropriate tone and style, incorporating supporting evidence and adhering to organizational, professional, and scholarly writing standards. 20% Does not convey purpose in an appropriate tone and style, incorporating supporting evidence and adhering to organizational, professional, and writing scholarly standards. Conveys purpose in an appropriate tone or style. Clear, effective communication is inhibited by insufficient supporting evidence and/or minimal adherence to applicable writing standards. Conveys purpose in an appropriate tone and style, incorporating supporting evidence and adhering to organizational, professional, and scholarly writing standards. Conveys clear purpose in a tone and style well-suited to the intended audience. Supports assertions, arguments, and conclusions with relevant, credible, and convincing evidence. Exhibits strict and nearly flawless adherence to organizational, professional, and scholarly writing standards, including APA style and formatting. CRITERIA https://courseroomc.capella.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/COUN/COUN6302/210100/Scoring_Guides/u08a1_scoring_guide.html 1/1 SOCIAL ANXIETY 1 Social Anxiety Disorder: Cultural Consideration Among African American and Asian American Community Katherine Campbell Capella University COUN6302-MHC-Clinical Practicum Professor Lisa Giovannelli May 2021 SOCIAL ANXIETY Social Anxiety Disorder Introduction Social anxiety disorder is a mental health condition commonly referred to as social phobia characterized by extreme fear when in social settings (Leichsenring, & Leweke, 2017). The disorder affects the individuals by causing trouble in talking to people, meeting new individuals, or attending social gatherings. The fear in most cases is attributed to the fear of being scrutinized or judged by other individuals. According to the DSM 5, criteria for social anxiety disorder include exhibition of persistent fear for specific social situations in fear of being judged, humiliated, or embarrassed, avoiding situations that would likely produce anxiety, or enduring such situations in intense fear. Also, the condition is assessed if one expresses excess anxiety compared to a certain situation, having anxiety that affects daily functioning, and fear that may not be explained by a medical condition (Leichsenring, & Leweke, 2017). Women have, over time, been indicating higher rates of anxiety disorders compared to males including clinical presentation of high severity and intense psychological arousal (Asher, Asnaani, & Aderka, 2017). Social anxiety disorder affects a large population, and its prevalence is directly linked to race. The African American women seem to exhibit higher levels of the condition, which calls for the need to review the cultural considerations associated with the assessment and diagnosis of the condition (Williams, Chapman, Wong, & Turkheimer, 2012). The disorder is further recognized from its early onset, significant health and social service costs, as well as its chronic nature Comparison of Two Assessment Tools Social anxiety disorder is a highly prevalent disorder that is, in most cases, underdiagnosed. Different assessment methods have been invented that seek to identify the SOCIAL ANXIETY 3 presence of this mental disorder. The assessments offer specific attributes for identifying the different aspects that meet the criteria for SAD. Self-reporting assessment tools are the most appropriate for individuals from different cultural and ethnic groups to avoid biased assessment (Mörtberg, & Jansson Fröjmark, 2019). The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) is an effective tool in assessing SAD through reviewing symptoms of fear of social interactions such as attending public events and avoidance. The scale further reviews physiological symptoms of discomfort associated with the anxiety, including; blushing, sweating, and tremor, which is also attributed to the disorder during social interactions or performance (Mörtberg, & Jansson Fröjmark, 2019). The assessment method provides a 17-item self-report inventory that issues questions and statements for analyzing the different symptoms associated with the anxiety. The inventory is highly efficient in assessing other languages through translation for the individual’s understanding of the prompts present across different languages and cultural contexts. Effectiveness for the Groups Different cultures have different rules and regulations that govern the supposedly right way of conduct. The SAD, in most cases, presents itself differently depending on the area of residence and the culture within which one was raised. Individuals from native countries, younger people, and the minority groups make up a higher percentage of those exhibiting signs of the disorder, making black Americans and Asian women susceptible to expressing the symptoms of the disorder (Mohammadi et al., 2019). The Social Phobia Inventory provides different culturally conditioned inquiries to manifest the social anxiety specific to the Asian community. Some of the prompt’s present within the scale may bring out some of the behaviors specific to the community’s cultural affiliation. For example, they must be in harmony with others, which may be assessed through the prompt inquiry about the bother of heart palpitations SOCIAL ANXIETY when around people (Mörtberg, & Jansson Fröjmark, 2019). However, engaging them in these assessments that require self-rating reports may not represent their social anxieties adequately since they may misinterpret adherence to some of the Asian traditional cultures that induce social anxiety. For instance, interpersonal harmony and interdependence may not be expressed, leading to false positives on the results of identifying the nature of the mental disorder. The SPIN assessment may be also applicable and reliable in assessing social anxiety disorder among the African American population. The assessment makes it possible to gauge the nature of the SAD through the different inquiry questions that maintain a balance between sensitivity and specificity. The scale may serve women of all ages within the African American community since it is modified to provide the ratings for children and adults (Mörtberg, & Jansson Fröjmark, 2019). The different prompts present in the inventory make it possible to assess for the presence of the disorder among the population that is in most cases affected by negative experiences of discrimination and oppression, which induces anxiety. Therefore, the inventory may be used to assess SAD among both populations though it may be less accurate in the case of Asians due to the cultural affiliations that influence the occurrence of the anxiety, especially among other groups. The social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS) is another assessment scale that enables SAD assessment among different populations. The scale’s total scores provide positive correlations towards the evaluation of the fear of negative judgments. Also, the score provides clear discrimination of the individuals presenting the SAD and those that do not. The scale provides twenty items within the test that enquire the different issues that may arise from having the disorder. These different prompts assess the different fears of social interaction and the reactions to scrutiny from other individuals. The individual’s kind of choices directly indicates whether or SOCIAL ANXIETY 5 not the mental disorder is present within the group. The assessment scale is highly beneficial in assessing anxiety among Asian women. According to Fan & Chang (2015), the SIAS assessment scale has previously proven to assess social anxiety disorder and other forms of anxiety effectively. Moreover, the scale readings have been translated to some Asian languages, such as Mandarin making it more effective (Fan & Chang, 2015). The scale may also be effective in assessing SAD among African American women of all ages since it is universally applicable for individuals of different cultures. The assessment has effectively helped identify and solve the anxiety problem in the US for all citizens regardless of their cultural affiliations or ethnicity. Consequently, since the assessment scale applies to any culture, it may be used in gauging the presence of the anxiety disorder for either of the female populations under study. Cultural Considerations when Diagnosing Social anxiety disorder is a condition expressed due to the fear of having negative evaluations from other individuals (Leichsenring, & Leweke, 2017). These evaluations are in most cases dependent on culture as these judgments are in most cases based on the social standards and type of role expectations upheld by the individuals. Understanding the different social concerns of individuals presenting social anxiety requires inquiry about their specific culture. The different cultures have specific behaviors and interpretations of events that may be quite peculiar for others due to the nature of different nature of individualism, varied perceptions of social norms, gender roles, and gender identification. In this regard, the rates of prevalence of the condition directly differ for specified ethnic identities. Furthermore, SAD has different culture-specific expressions depending on the required behavioral exhibitions relevant to the group (Gopalkrishnan, 2018). Therefore, it is essential to consider the different cultural differences in the process during the diagnostic process. SOCIAL ANXIETY Cultural Factors contributing to the Diagnosis. The kind of cultural practices or beliefs directly influences the prevalence of social anxiety disorders among different individuals. Gender roles are a high influencer of social anxiety among women as they may be quite overwhelming (Mohammadi et al., 2019). The role expectations specific to the Asian culture may be quite demanding for the women, which could result in serious anxiety when they fail to fulfill their assigned roles. Also, women from the Black American community may also exhibit anxiety from failure to fulfill their obligations in a culture that leaves them battling with accomplishing numerous commitments and responsibilities (Liao, Wei, & Yin, 2020). These women are expected to fend for the family, take care of parenting roles and their relatives, such as caring for elderly parents, which may be quite overwhelming and hard to complete. Therefore, women within these cultures may experience higher levels of anxiety, especially from low-income communities, which requires a review of the specific cultural roles during the diagnostic process to understand contributions. The social schemas present within the society also contribute to cases of anxiety among many women in the organization. The strong black woman schema makes up one of the most destructive themes attributed to negative psychological outcomes (Liao, Wei, & Yin, 2020). The schema explains the cultural expectations of how they are expected to behave and the responsibilities they need t to fulfill. According to the schema the African American woman needs to exhibit unyielding strength, assume multiple roles and care for others within their families. A review of research indicates that this schema directly affects the women within this culture and influences the acquisition of mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety (Liao, Wei, & Yin, 2020). The schema is highly socialized within society, and the women are expected to behave according to its recommendations, overwhelming them. Therefore, acquiring SAD SOCIAL ANXIETY 7 results from heightened anxiety due to the need to live up to society’s expectations and occasionally be overwhelmed by the different gender roles. The Asians’ anxiety levels are also directly influenced by the nature of their culture. The Asian community has different cultural beliefs on interaction and conduct when around other individuals. They believe in existing as a collective community through maintaining social harmony among the group (Jefferies, & Ungar, 2020). Their cultural beliefs emphasize the need to be interdependent and live-in harmony with the social others. The social anxiety within the group results from the attention on how their individual behaviors may impact others or how they would have been reflected by others (Fan & Chang, 2015). Moreover, the Asian culture emphasizes the respect of hierarchy which makes many people sacrifice their personal interests for the sake of the group. In this regard, women who value their roles, status, and relationships are likely to have anxiety. The scale makes it possible to understand these aspects, thus effective for the group. In this regard, they tend to consider the perspectives of others and their own for smooth harmonized existence within social situations. If presented with situations exhibiting negative perceptions about them, they have increased chances of acquiring social anxiety. Similarly, the pressure to conform to the collective expectations may cause social anxiety when around authority figures or serious situations. Social anxiety that contributes to the disorder may also result from the nature of their culture and ethnic identity, making it hard to strive within a discriminatory environment. African American women face cultural constraints that increase their chances of acquiring SAD in colleges and other social institutions. These different situations require them to compete and attain positions held by their white counterparts effectively. These institutions accommodate few black women who may be the first or only one’s present. Their uniqueness keeps them under SOCIAL ANXIETY serious scrutiny from the dominant cultural group increasing the anxiety from tension and striving to maintain their positions or prove the assumptions wrong. On the other hand, Asian women may face aggravated anxiety within the different social institutions due to the emphasis of them becoming homemakers rather than equal competitors within the job market. Also, Asian women who seek higher learning may be under pressure to perform well, which further heightens their anxiety and risks acquiring mental health issues (Fan & Chang, 2015). Ethnic identity serves as a contributing factor towards resilience and good coping among African Americans. Those around the people from similar ethnic backgrounds, especially those from low-income communities, may feel less anxious or concerned about being judged (Gopalkrishnan, 2018). Some African American women may face discriminatory attacks of others thinking they are acting like their white counterparts. These discriminatory comments may create SAD for African Americans when around the areas with a high number of individuals from other racial identities (Gopalkrishnan, 201). Similar experiences are present among Asian women, especially those living far from their native countries. The dependence they build towards the members of their social culture may make them quite uneasy when around other individuals from other cultures. Therefore, the negative and stereotypical behaviors associated with the cultural affiliations and beliefs directly result in anxiety for the women. Cultural Aspects affecting Mental Health Help-Seeking The help-seeking process is affected differently due to the different ethnic and cultural beliefs relevant to their group. For example, African American women rarely seek treatment due to the nature of social stigma surrounding the issues of mental health disorders (Gopalkrishnan, 2018). Most individuals within the community fail to seek help since illness like SAD seems like SOCIAL ANXIETY 9 a mark of shame or disapproval that makes them get discriminated against, rejected, and excluded within different social activities (Gopalkrishnan, 2018). The stigma results in shame that makes individuals decide on hiding the symptoms and seeking mental health services to get avoided. On the other hand, Asian women make up the large population of women living with mental health conditions due to the cultural constraints present. Much emphasis is placed on the family unit rather than the individual, which makes many keep their mental health concerns to themselves rather than share them for help. Also, the females grow in an environment characterized by strict parents for them compared to boys. Nature makes the parents expect much from them, and they are restricted from engaging in social activities. Furthermore, they are bear most of the family pressure and expected to act fine despite there being issues within the family. These different expectations directly contribute to the possibility of acquiring anxiety disorders that may go untreated for long. Having mental illness for individuals within the Asian culture is highly detested (Zhang et al., 2020). The members of the Asian community regard having a mental illness is a poor reflection of the family. Such a belief is directly associated with the mental health crisis among the community members, further accounting for the high prevalence of SAD among the women in that community (Zhang et al., 2020). Holding such beliefs may limit the health-seeking behaviors in fear of tainting the image of their families (Zhang et al., 20 …
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