Explain important prevention efforts that take place during prenatal through age three and their significance. Explain why prevention efforts are so important at this stage.

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Throughout this course, you will analyze prevention through the lifespan development. In order to prepare for this analysis, use the Figure 1.1 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development table located in Chapter 1 of Counseling Across the Lifespan: Prevention and Treatment. In addition to the textbook, cite three to five scholarly sources to defend your answers.

In an essay (750-1,000 words), address the following:

Describe each of the eight stages: Psychosocially and the virtue presented.

Explain how prevention efforts change at different points in the lifecycle. Provide examples.

Explain important prevention efforts that take place during prenatal through age three and their significance. Explain why prevention efforts are so important at this stage.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

Turn in the assignment by the end of Topic 2.

Read Chapter 2 in Counseling Across the Lifespan: Prevention and Treatment.




Running Head: PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 1 Paper should follow the APA Style Guide (7th edition); see downloadable student paper template in the APA announcement. 7th edition does not require running head titles. Psychosocial Development Student’s Name Belongs Here College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Grand Canyon University MHW 524: Prevention Throughout the Lifespan Instructor’s name belongs here Darline Demosthene April 26, 2021 PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 2 Psychosocial Development According to Erickson, personality advances in a determined order through the eight stages of psychosocial development. According to his theory, personality develops right from infancy to the point of adulthood. During, each of these stages, the individual experiences a psychosocial predicament which could affect their personality both positively and negatively. These psychosocial crises involve the psychosocial needs of the individual competing with those of the society. According to Erickson, if a person successfully completes each stage of the psychosocial development, they gain healthy personalities and acquire basic virtues. Basic virtues can be described as the characteristic strengths that the ego can use when it comes to resolving subsequent crises. The first stage is Trust vs. Mistrust. It begins at birth to eighteen months of age. During this stage, the newly born baby does not understand how the world functions; they look up to their primary caregiver for direction and care. If the care the infant receives is dependable and steadfast, they will develop trust which will influence their other relationships (Karkouti, 2014). If their needs are not successfully met, they develop mistrust, suspicion and insecurity which consequently influence their other relationships. The second stage is autonomy vs. shame and doubt. The stage occurs between ages of 18 months to 3 years. Children in this stage intend on developing independence skills and personal control. Parents are encouraged to let their children explore; they should provide them with a sense of direction but also provide them with the freedom to find their way into the world. The success of this stage influences the virtue of will. It is essential to note that this stage significantly influence the confidence levels of the child. PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 3 The third stage is initiative vs. Guilt. In this stage, children develop assertive skills more frequently through social interaction. They are lively and develop rapidly through the years. At some point, parents may see these behaviors as aggressive, however, these children are only trying to learn and understand the world better. The main influencing factor in this stage is the child’s interactions; the children actively interact with other children in social settings which influences their behaviors and character (Juntunen & Atkinson, 2002). They reconnoitre their interpersonal skills through instigating activities; it helps them develop a sense of resourcefulness and security in their capability to make decisions. The fourth stage is industry vs. Inferiority. It ensues between ages five and twelve. At this stage, the child’s immediate peer group has a significant influence on their self-esteem. The child feels the need to gain approval and validation by demonstrating various capabilities that are appreciated by the society. Parents and teachers are increasingly advised to reinforce their child’s initiative. It makes them feel industrious and confident enough to achieve their desired objectives. The virtue of competence is obtained if this stage is handled properly. The fifth stage is identity vs. Role confusion. It occurs majorly in adolescents between the ages of twelve and eighteen. The children’s need for personal and self-identity influences their beliefs and goals. This stage is the most important as it marks the bridge between childhood and adulthood. Two identities are involved in this stage; the sexual and occupation stage. Successful completion of this stage will influence the virtue of fidelity. The sixth stage is intimacy vs. Isolation. It takes place between the ages of eighteen and forty. The major conflict is centered on forming intimate and loving relationships. The successful completion of this stage leads to the development of the virtue of love. PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 4 The seventh stage is marked by generosity vs. stagnation. It takes place during the age of 40 years to 65 years. It pertains to marking the world through the creation and nurturing of things that will last beyond the individual’s life. Middle age individuals are significantly influenced to create things that will outlast them. The individual develops the virtue of care (Hamachek, 1988). The eighth stage is ego integrity vs. Despair. It begins at approximately 65 years old and ends at death. Individuals that reflect on their lives and acknowledge their accomplishments often have feelings of pride and happiness. However, other individuals develop bitterness due to the lack of achievements. It is essential to note that this stage is significantly influenced by the other stages; the prevention efforts used in the other stages influence the outcome of this stage and the state of the individual. At this time, the individual begins contemplating their achievements and accomplishments. The virtue developed at this stage is wisdom. A person becomes wiser with age by understand the different factors that influence their lives. Hello, Darline! Thank you for submitting this assignment. The SI score of 12% is high but still below the GCU 20% maximum. After looking at the report and going over the content, I believe the score is based on APA formatting issues related to quotations and not potential plagiarism. You did a good job of discussing the stages of psychosocial development. At the same time, this paper also calls for a discussion of prevention efforts and how they change at different points in the life cycle and also an explanation of important prevention efforts that take place during prenatal through age three and their significance. These two pieces I’m not seeing. This will impact the grade. If you would like to add these missing pieces, I would be happy to allow a resubmission. Please contact me in the Private Forum if you would like to resubmit. There were a several APA formatting issues; download graded paper to see feedback provided. Additional feedback is available through the grading rubric. Thank you again! 5 PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT References Hamachek, D. E. (1988). Evaluating self‐concept and ego development within Erikson’s psychosocial framework: A formulation. Journal of Counseling & Development, 66(8), 354-360. PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3149/jms.0701.133 Juntunen, C. L., & Atkinson, D. R. (2002). Counseling across the lifespan: Prevention and treatment Sage Publications, Inc. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2001-05781-000 Karkouti, I. M. (2014). Examining psychosocial identity development theories: A guideline for professional practice. Education, 135(2), 257-263. https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/prin/ed/2014/00000135/00000002/art00011 6 …
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