Describe the trend in global inequality over the course of the last century. Based on where we have been and where we are now, predict where the world may be a century from now. What prediction would modernization theory support? What about dependency theory? What do you think will happen? Why?minimum of 200 words APA citation

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Describe the trend in global inequality over the course of the last century. Based on where we have been and where we are now, predict where the world may be a century from now. What prediction would modernization theory support? What about dependency theory? What do you think will happen? Why?minimum of 200 words APA citation

 

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Modernization theory • • • Assumes that the economic differences among countries are due to technological and cultural differences. Depends on a country having a cultural environment that welcomes innovation and makes it possible for technological advancements to be incorporated into that society. Assumes that developed countries play an important role in helping the lessdeveloped countries to modernize. Dependency Theory • • • Proposes that the economic positions of rich and poor nations are linked and cannot be understood in isolation from each other. Global inequality is due to the exploitation of poor societies by the rich ones. Dependency theorists believe that the prosperity of the more-developed countries came about because of the impoverishment of other countries. Critics believe: –That no systematic empirical support exists for many of the basic claims about the role dependence plays in blocking development. –Point out that it is simplistic to believe that only one factor—capitalism—is the cause of global inequality. –Ignores other factors within a country that could produce poverty, such as corruption, mismanagement, or the suppression of minorities. –Critics also see dependency theory as more ideology than theory. –Believe that dependency theory is designed to inspire revolutionaries in lessdeveloped countries rather than provide an accurate account of economic development. World population • 6.79 billion, in mid 2009 has more than doubled since 1960 and is projected to be 9.3 billion, by 2050. The Health of Infants and Children in Developing Countries • Death among children is overwhelmingly a problem of the developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Maternal Education • Children’s chances of surviving improve as their mother’s education increases. Population Trends • • Global stratification is greatly influenced by population growth How many children a family has will affect that family’s lifestyle in both developed and undeveloped countries. Many factors determine the typical family size in a country: 1. Child Marriage and Early Marriage • • • Child marriage began as a way to protect unwelcome sexual advances and to gain economic security. That purpose is no longer being served and child marriage often means the girl will have a life of sexual and economic servitude. The second class status of women is both the cause and the result of child marriage. 2. Gender Preferences Three sets of factors influence the desire for male children. 1. Economic 2. Social 3. Psychological 3. Income Level People with higher incomes want fewer children. In your opinion why is this the case? 4. Education of Women • Fertility levels are usually the lowest among the most highly educated women within a country. 5. Urban or Rural Residence • • • Rural lifestyles that involve farming and herding tend to produce high birthrates because children are seen as contributing workers. Urban fertility tends to be lower in developing countries than rural fertility. Urban dwellers usually have access to better education and health services, a wider range of jobs, and more avenues for self-improvement and social mobility than do their rural counterparts Stratification Systems Two ways stratification happens 1. People can be assigned to societal roles –This will produce the caste and estate systems of stratification. 2. People’s positions in the social hierarchy can be based to some degree on their achieved statuses The Caste System • A rigid form of stratification, based on ascribed characteristics such as skin color or family identity, that determines a person’s prestige, occupation, residence, and social relationships. The Estate System • • • A closed system of stratification in which a person’s social position is defined by law, and membership is determined primarily by inheritance. A segment of a society that has legally established rights and duties. Is similar to a caste system, but not as extreme. The Class System • Social class consists of a category of people who share similar opportunities, similar economic and vocational positions, similar lifestyles, and similar attitudes and behaviors. …
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