College of Administrative and Financial Sciences MGT325: Management of Technology Assignment 3 Course Name: Management of Technology Student’s Name: Course Code: MGT-325 Student’s ID Number: Semester: II CRN: Academic Year: 2020-2021 For Instructor’s Use only Instructor’s Name: Students’ Grade: Marks Obtained/Out of Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY •

make work clear and well presented

mention question number clearly in answer.

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All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font

NOTE: It is mandatory for the students to mention their references, sources and support each answer with at least 2 peer reviewed journal.

Read the book page number 197-200



College of Administrative and Financial Sciences MGT325: Management of Technology Assignment 3 Course Name: Management of Technology Student’s Name: Course Code: MGT-325 Student’s ID Number: Semester: II CRN: Academic Year: 2020-2021 For Instructor’s Use only Instructor’s Name: Students’ Grade: Marks Obtained/Out of Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY • The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder. • Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted. • Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page. • Students must mention question number clearly in their answer. • Late submission will NOT be accepted. • Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions. • All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism). • Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted. Course Learning Outcomes-Covered ➢ Explain of the concepts, models for formulating strategies, defining the organizational strategic directions and crafting a deployment strategy. (Lo 1.2) ➢ Demonstrate the dynamics of technological innovation concepts in technologyintensive business enterprises ( Lo-1.1) Assignment 3 Marks: 5 Students are requested to read the opening case of chapter 9 “Protecting Innovation” from their book Strategic Management of Technological Innovation (Page Number-197-200) of e-textbook. Based on your understanding of the case and concepts studied until now answer the following question in 300-500 words each. 1. What industry conditions led to the revolution in audio distribution described above? Which stakeholders stand to benefit most (or least) from this revolution? (1.5 marks) 2. Why did the music stores created by the record labels fail to attract many subscribers? What, if anything, should the record labels have done differently? (1 mark) 3. What factors led iTunes to be successful? (1.5 marks) 4. How do you think a move away from owning music led to record-setting music revenues? (1 mark) NOTE: It is mandatory for the students to mention their references, sources and support each answer with at least 2 peer reviewed journal. Strategic Management of Technological Innovation Strategic Management of Technological Innovation Sixth Edition Melissa A. Schilling New York University First Pages STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2020 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States. This book is printed on acid-free paper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LCR 21 20 19 ISBN 978-1-260-56579-9 MHID 1-260-56579-3 Cover Image: ©Shutterstock/iSam iSmile All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page. The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites. sch65793_fm_ise.indd iv 12/04/18 11:25 AM About the Author Melissa A. Schilling, Ph.D. Melissa Schilling is the John Herzog family professor of management and organizations at New York University’s Stern School of Business. Professor Schilling teaches courses in strategic management, corporate strategy and technology, and innovation management. Before joining NYU, she was an Assistant Professor at ­Boston ­University (1997–2001), and has also served as a Visiting Professor at INSEAD and the Bren School of Environmental Science & Management at the University of California at Santa Barbara. She has also taught strategy and innovation courses at Siemens ­Corporation, IBM, the Kauffman Foundation Entrepreneurship Fellows ­program, Sogang University in Korea, and the Alta Scuola Polytecnica, a joint institution of Politecnico di Milano and Politecnico di Torino. Professor Schilling’s research focuses on technological innovation and knowledge creation. She has studied how technology shocks influence collaboration activity and innovation outcomes, how firms fight technology standards battles, and how firms utilize collaboration, protection, and timing of entry strategies. She also studies how product designs and organizational structures migrate toward or away from modularity. Her most recent work focuses on knowledge creation, including how breadth of knowledge and search influences insight and learning, and how the structure of knowledge networks influences their overall capacity for knowledge creation. Her research in innovation and strategy has appeared in the leading academic journals such as ­Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Management Science, Organization Science, Strategic Management Journal, and Journal of ­Economics and Management Strategy and Research Policy. She also sits on the editorial review boards of Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Discoveries, Organization Science, Strategy Science, and Strategic Organization. She is the author of Quirky: The Remarkable Story of the Traits, Foibles, and Genius of Breakthrough Innovators Who Changed the World, and she is coauthor of Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach. Professor Schilling won an NSF CAREER award in 2003, and Boston University’s Broderick Prize for research in 2000. v Preface Innovation is a beautiful thing. It is a force with both aesthetic and pragmatic appeal: It unleashes our creative spirit, opening our minds to hitherto undreamed of possibilities, while accelerating economic growth and providing advances in such crucial human endeavors as medicine, agriculture, and education. For industrial organizations, the primary engines of innovation in the Western world, innovation provides both exceptional opportunities and steep challenges. While innovation is a powerful means of competitive differentiation, enabling firms to penetrate new markets and achieve higher margins, it is also a competitive race that must be run with speed, skill, and precision. It is not enough for a firm to be innovative—to be successful it must innovate better than its competitors. As scholars and managers have raced to better understand innovation, a wide range of work on the topic has emerged and flourished in disciplines such as strategic management, organization theory, economics, marketing, engineering, and sociology. This work has generated many insights about how innovation affects the competitive dynamics of markets, how firms can strategically manage innovation, and how firms can implement their innovation strategies to maximize their likelihood of success. A great benefit of the dispersion of this literature across such diverse domains of study is that many innovation topics have been examined from different angles. However, this diversity also can pose integration challenges to both instructors and students. This book seeks to integrate this wide body of work into a single coherent strategic framework, attempting to provide coverage that is rigorous, inclusive, and accessible. Organization of the Book The subject of innovation management is approached here as a strategic process. The outline of the book is designed to mirror the strategic management process used in most strategy textbooks, progressing from assessing the competitive dynamics of the situation, to strategy formulation, and then to strategy implementation. The first part of the book covers the foundations and implications of the dynamics of innovation, helping managers and future managers better interpret their technological environments and identify meaningful trends. The second part of the book begins the process of crafting the firm’s strategic direction and formulating its innovation strategy, including project selection, collaboration strategies, and strategies for protecting the firm’s property rights. The third part of the book covers the process of implementing innovation, including the implications of organization structure on innovation, the management of new product development processes, the construction and management of new product development teams, and crafting the firm’s deployment strategy. While the book emphasizes practical applications and examples, it also provides systematic coverage of the existing research and footnotes to guide further reading. Complete Coverage for Both Business and Engineering Students vi This book is designed to be a primary text for courses in the strategic management of innovation and new product development. Such courses are frequently taught in both Preface vii business and engineering programs; thus, this book has been written with the needs of business and engineering students in mind. For example, Chapter Six (Defining the Organization’s Strategic Direction) provides basic strategic analysis tools with which business students may already be familiar, but which may be unfamiliar to engineering students. Similarly, some of the material in Chapter Eleven (Managing the New Product Development Process) on computer-aided design or quality function deployment may be review material for information system students or engineering students, while being new to management students. Though the chapters are designed to have an intuitive order to them, they are also designed to be self-standing so instructors can pick and choose from them “buffet style” if they prefer. New for the Sixth Edition This sixth edition of the text has been comprehensively revised to ensure that the frameworks and tools are rigorous and comprehensive, the examples are fresh and exciting, and the figures and cases represent the most current information available. Some changes of particular note include: Six New Short Cases The Rise of “Clean Meat”. The new opening case for Chapter Two is about the development of “clean meat”—meat grown from animal cells without the animal itself. Traditional meat production methods are extremely resource intensive and produce large amounts of greenhouse gases. Further, the growing demand for meat indicated an impending “meat crisis” whereby not enough meat could be produced to meet demand. “Clean meat” promised to enable meat production using a tiny fraction of the energy, water, and land used for traditional meat production. Its production would create negligible greenhouse gases, and the meat itself would have no antibiotics or steroids, alleviating some of the health concerns of traditional meat consumption. Furthermore, it would dramatically reduce animal suffering. If successful, it would be one of the largest breakthroughs ever achieved in food production. Innovating in India: The Chotukool Project. Chapter Three opens with a case about the Chotukool, a small, inexpensive, and portable refrigerator developed in India. In rural India, as many as 90 percent of families could not afford household appliances, did not have reliable access to electricity, and had no means of refrigeration. Godrej and Boyce believed that finding a way to provide refrigeration to this segment of the population offered the promise of both a huge market and making a meaningful difference in people’s quality of life. UberAIR. Chapter Five now opens with a case about UberAIR, Uber’s new service to provide air transport on demand. Uber had already become synonymous with ­on-demand car transport in most of the Western world; it now believed it could develop the same service for air transport using electric vertical take-off and landing aircraft (eVTOLs). There were a lot of pieces to this puzzle, however. In addition to the technology of the aircraft, the service would require an extensive network of landing pads, specially trained pilots (at least until autonomous eVTOLs became practical), and dramatically new air traffic control regulations and infrastructure. Was the time ripe for on-demand air transport, or was UberAIR ahead of its time? viii Preface Tesla Inc. in 2018. Chapter Six opens with a new case on Tesla, no longer just an electric vehicle company. This case reviews the rise of Tesla, and then explores the new businesses Tesla has entered, including solar panel leasing and installation (Solar City), solar roof production, and energy storage systems (e.g., Powerwall). Why did the company move into these businesses, and would synergies betweeen them help to make the company more successful? Where Should We Focus Our Innovation Efforts? An Exercise. Chapter Seven now opens with an exercise that shows how firms can tease apart the dimensions of value driving technological progress in an industry, map the marginal returns to further investment on each dimension, and prioritize their innovation efforts. Using numerous examples, the exercise helps managers realize where the breakthrough opportunities of the future are likely to be, and where the firm may be currently overspending. Scrums, Sprints, and Burnouts: Agile Development at Cisco Systems. Chapter Eleven opens with a case about Cisco’s adoption of the agile development method now commonly used in software development. The case explains what agile development is, how it differs from other development methods (such as stage-gated methods), and when (and why) a firm would choose agile development versus gated development for a particular innovation. Cases, Data, and Examples from around the World Careful attention has been paid to ensure that the text is global in its scope. The opening cases and examples feature companies from China, India, Israel, Japan, The ­Netherlands, Kenya, the United States, and more. Wherever possible, statistics used in the text are based on worldwide data. More Comprehensive Coverage and Focus on Current Innovation Trends In response to reviewer suggestions, the new edition now provides an extensive discussion of modularity and platform competition, crowdsourcing and customer ­co-creation, agile development strategies, and more. The suggested readings for each chapter have also been updated to identify some of the more recent publications that have gained widespread attention in the topic area of each chapter. Despite these additions, great effort has also been put into ensuring the book remains concise—a feature that has proven popular with both instructors and students. Supplements The teaching package for Strategic Management of Technological Innovation is available online from Connect at and includes: ∙ An instructor’s manual with suggested class outlines, responses to discussion questions, and more. ∙ Complete PowerPoint slides with lecture outlines and all major figures from the text. The slides can also be modified by the instructor to customize them to the instructor’s needs. ∙ A testbank with true/false, multiple choice, and short answer/short essay questions. ∙ A suggested list of cases to pair with chapters from the text. Students—study more efficiently, retain more and achieve better outcomes. Instructors—focus on what you love—teaching. SUCCESSFUL SEMESTERS INCLUDE CONNECT For Instructors You’re in the driver’s seat. Want to build your own course? No problem. Prefer to use our turnkey, prebuilt course? Easy. Want to make changes throughout the semester? Sure. And you’ll save time with Connect’s auto-grading too. 65% Less Time Grading They’ll thank you for it. Adaptive study resources like SmartBook® help your students be better prepared in less time. You can transform your class time from dull definitions to dynamic debates. Hear from your peers about the benefits of Connect at Make it simple, make it affordable. Connect makes it easy with seamless integration using any of the major Learning Management Systems—Blackboard®, Canvas, and D2L, among others—to let you organize your course in one convenient location. Give your students access to digital materials at a discount with our inclusive access program. Ask your McGraw-Hill representative for more information. ©Hill Street Studios/Tobin Rogers/Blend Images LLC Solutions for your challenges. A product isn’t a solution. Real solutions are affordable, reliable, and come with training and ongoing support when you need it and how you want it. Our Customer Experience Group can also help you troubleshoot tech problems—although Connect’s 99% uptime means you might not need to call them. See for yourself at For Students Effective, efficient studying. Connect helps you be more productive with your study time and get better grades using tools like SmartBook, which highlights key concepts and creates a personalized study plan. Connect sets you up for success, so you walk into class with confidence and walk out with better grades. ©Shutterstock/wavebreakmedia I really liked this app it “ made it easy to study when — you don’t have your textbook in front of you. ” – Jordan Cunningham, Eastern Washington University Study anytime, anywhere. Download the free ReadAnywhere app and access your online eBook when it’s convenient, even if you’re offline. And since the app automatically syncs with your eBook in Connect, all of your notes are available every time you open it. Find out more at No surprises. The Connect Calendar and Reports tools keep you on track with the work you need to get done and your assignment scores. Life gets busy; Connect tools help you keep learning through it all. 13 14 Chapter 12 Quiz Chapter 11 Quiz Chapter 13 Evidence of Evolution Chapter 11 DNA Technology Chapter 7 Quiz Chapter 7 DNA Structure and Gene… and 7 more… Learning for everyone. McGraw-Hill works directly with Accessibility Services Departments and faculty to meet the learning needs of all students. Please contact your Accessibility Services office and ask them to email, or visit for more information. Acknowledgments This book arose out of my research and teaching on technological innovation and new product development over the last decade; however, it has been anything but a lone endeavor. I owe much of the original inspiration of the book to Charles Hill, who helped to ignite my initial interest in innovation, guided me in my research agenda, and ultimately encouraged me to write this book. I am also very grateful to colleagues and friends such as Rajshree Agarwal, Juan Alcacer, Rick Alden, William Baumol, Bruno Braga, Gino Cattanni, Tom Davis, Sinziana Dorobantu, Gary Dushnitsky, Douglas Fulop, Raghu Garud, Deepak Hegde, Hla Lifshitz, Tammy Madsen, Rodolfo Martinez, Goncalo Pacheco D’Almeida, Joost Rietveld, Paul Shapiro, Jaspal Singh, Deepak Somaya, Bill Starbuck, Christopher Tucci, and Andy Zynga for their suggestions, insights, and encouragement. I am grateful to director Mike Ablassmeir and marketing manager Lisa Granger. I am also thankful to my editors, Laura Hurst Spell and Diana Murphy …
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