4) How do you cope with your perceived stress? Are your approaches to coping healthy or unhealthy? Why or why not? Do you feel like they help you mitigate the short-term effects of stress? How do they help with alleviating the long-term effects of stress?

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Please download and print the Perceived Stress Scale. Carefully read the instructions and complete the scale for yourself. Next, click here download to download instructions to help you score your responses to create an overall amount of perceived stress over the past month. Finally, reflect upon your results on the scale and respond to the following prompts with at least 3 full sentences under each.

1) Report your perceived stress score. Does your score on the scale accurately reflect the amount of perceived stress you have experienced over the past month? If not, why? If so, what types of events contribute to this? Keep in mind that scores on the scale can range from 0-40 with higher scores reflecting higher levels of perceived stress.

2) Refer to the norm table on the scoring document and compare your perceived stress score with those of the demographic categories to which you identify under gender, age, and race. The data were gathered from a representative sample of participants who completed the scale to determine a mean level of perceived stress within each category. How do you compare? If you do not see yourself represented in the reported categories, how does it make you feel when scientific research lacks representation of individuals with similar identity to yourself? What can researchers do to ensure a more representative sample in the future?

3) There appears to be observable differences in the perceived stress reported across different race categories with White individuals reporting the least amount of perceived stress in the sample. Do you think the results across the race categories reflect perceived stress throughout American society? Why or why not?

4) How do you cope with your perceived stress? Are your approaches to coping healthy or unhealthy? Why or why not? Do you feel like they help you mitigate the short-term effects of stress? How do they help with alleviating the long-term effects of stress?

5) How has Module 6 contributed to your understanding of stress, its effects on health, and ways to reduce stress in your life?

 

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PERCEIVED STRESS SCALE The questions in this scale ask you about your feelings and thoughts during the last month. In each case, you will be asked to indicate by circling how often you felt or thought a certain way. Name Date Gender (Circle): Age 0 Never 1 M F Almost Never Other 2 5ometimes 3= Fairly Often 1. In the last month, how often have you been upset because of something that happened unexpectedly? 4-Very Often 0 1 2 3 4 control the important things in your life? 01 2 3 4 3. In the last month, how often have you felt nervous and “stressed’? 0 1 2 3 4 01 2 3 4 01 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 things? 0 1 2 3 4 9. In the last month, how often have you been angered because of things that were outside of your control? 0 1 2 3 4 01 2 3 4 2. In the last month, how often have you felt that you were unable to 4. In the last month, how often have you felt confident about your ability to handle your personal problems? 5. In the last month, how often have you felt that things were going your way? 6. In the last month, how often have you found that you could not cope with all the things that you had to do? 7. In the last month, how often have you been able to control irritations in your life? 8. In the last month, how often have you felt that you were on top of 10. In the last month, how oftern have you felt difficulties were piling up so high that you could not overcome them? mnd garden info@mindgarden.com www.mindgarden.com References The PSS Scale is reprinted with permission of the American Sociological Association, from Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., and Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 386-396. Cohen, S. and Williamson, G. Perceived Stress in a Probability Sample of the United States. Spacapan, S. and Oskamp, S. (Eds.) The Social Psychology of Health. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1988. Perceived Stress Scale by Sheldon Cohen The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is the most widely used psychological instrument for measuring the perception of stress. It is a measure of the degree to which situations in one’s life are appraised as stressful. Items were designed to tap how unpredictable, uncontrollable, and overloaded respondents find their lives. The scale also includes a number of direct queries about current levels of experienced stress. The PSS was designed for use in community samples with at least a junior high school education. The items are easy to understand, and the response alternatives are simple to grasp. Moreover, the questions are of a general nature and hence are relatively free of content specific to any subpopulation group. The questions in the PSS ask about feelings and thoughts during the last month. In each case, respondents are asked how often they felt a certain way. Scoring: Begin by reversing your responses for items 4, 5, 7, & 8. Specifically, if you gave yourself a score of 0 on these four items, cross it out and give yourself a new score of 4. If you gave yourself a score of 1 on these four items, cross it out and give yourself a new score of 3. If you gave yourself a score of 2 on these four items, it remains a 2. If you gave yourself a score of 3 on these four items, cross it out and give yourself a new score of 1. If you gave yourself a score of 4 on these four items, cross it out and give yourself a new score of 0. Next, add your responses across all 10 scale items. This will provide you with a total perceived stress score. S c o r e s c a n r a n g e f r o m 0 t o 4 0 , w i t h h i g h e r s c o r e s i n d i c a t e i n g a greater amount of perceived stress over the past month. Norm Groups: L. Harris Poll gathered information on 2,387 respondents in the U.S. Take your total perceived stress score and compare it to the demographic categories below to which you identify. Norm Table for the PSS 10 item inventory Category N Mean S.D. Gender Male 926 12.1 5.9 Female 1406 13.7 6.6 18-29 645 14.2 6.2 30-44 750 13.0 6.2 45-54 285 12.6 6.1 55-64 282 11.9 6.9 65 & older 296 12.0 6.3 1924 12.8 6.2 Hispanic 98 14.0 6.9 black 176 14.7 7.2 other minority 50 14.1 5.0 Age Race white Perceived Stress Scale by Sheldon Cohen The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is the most widely used psychological instrument for measuring the perception of stress. It is a measure of the degree to which situations in one’s life are appraised as stressful. Items were designed to tap how unpredictable, uncontrollable, and overloaded respondents find their lives. The scale also includes a number of direct queries about current levels of experienced stress. The PSS was designed for use in community samples with at least a junior high school education. The items are easy to understand, and the response alternatives are simple to grasp. Moreover, the questions are of a general nature and hence are relatively free of content specific to any subpopulation group. The questions in the PSS ask about feelings and thoughts during the last month. In each case, respondents are asked how often they felt a certain way. Scoring: Begin by reversing your responses for items 4, 5, 7, & 8. Specifically, if you gave yourself a score of 0 on these four items, cross it out and give yourself a new score of 4. If you gave yourself a score of 1 on these four items, cross it out and give yourself a new score of 3. If you gave yourself a score of 2 on these four items, it remains a 2. If you gave yourself a score of 3 on these four items, cross it out and give yourself a new score of 1. If you gave yourself a score of 4 on these four items, cross it out and give yourself a new score of 0. Next, add your responses across all 10 scale items. This will provide you with a total perceived stress score. S c o r e s c a n r a n g e f r o m 0 t o 4 0 , w i t h h i g h e r s c o r e s i n d i c a t e i n g a greater amount of perceived stress over the past month. Norm Groups: L. Harris Poll gathered information on 2,387 respondents in the U.S. Take your total perceived stress score and compare it to the demographic categories below to which you identify. Norm Table for the PSS 10 item inventory Category N Mean S.D. Gender Male 926 12.1 5.9 Female 1406 13.7 6.6 18-29 645 14.2 6.2 30-44 750 13.0 6.2 45-54 285 12.6 6.1 55-64 282 11.9 6.9 65 & older 296 12.0 6.3 1924 12.8 6.2 Hispanic 98 14.0 6.9 black 176 14.7 7.2 other minority 50 14.1 5.0 Age Race white …
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