1) How does the instability of the workplace affect families? Part time work, seasonal work, low paid jobs with no health insurance or childcare, all play a part in family dynamics. Even people with advanced degrees find it very difficult to get full time work. Has your family been affected by the downturn that happened in 2008 or the current recession?

I’m working on a sociology discussion question and need support to help me study.

 

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everything is explained below . chapter 11 & 12 are attached .

 

Discuss Family Pressures: Work, Childcare.

How do families juggle all the expectations and obligations that are put on them? This week we have learned about the stressors of WORK (at home and paid work) and the cost of CHILDCARE. Learning about how other countries handle these issues is an important piece of this chapter.

1) How does the instability of the workplace affect families? Part time work, seasonal work, low paid jobs with no health insurance or childcare, all play a part in family dynamics. Even people with advanced degrees find it very difficult to get full time work. Has your family been affected by the downturn that happened in 2008 or the current recession?

2) Since COVID we have seen many big companies filing for bankruptcy or getting rid of thousands of workers. This is a structural problem in our society, not because people don’t want to work. We see this is happening all around the world. In which countries are people better supported? How do they achieve this? What can we learn from these other places that may help our own economy?

3) Division of labor at home: do you see examples of gendered imbalances in your own lives? What type of jobs did your parents each do at home when you were growing up? What messages did you get about what chores were expected of you at home? Has that changed as you got older? Will you raise your children the same way that you were raised?

 

UNFORMATTED ATTACHMENT PREVIEW

Families and Their Social Worlds Fourth Edition Chapter 11 Families and the Work They Do Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives 11.1 Relate the condition of the economy to family work experiences 11.2 Determine the impact of the recession on U.S. families 11.3 Analyze the sociocultural contexts of household labor 11.4 Analyze how family members balance work and social demands 11.5 Evaluate how social childcare policies impact family resilience Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.1 The Changing Economy and Work Objective: Relate the condition of the economy to family work experiences • In early colonial America, most families worked closely with the land. • In the nineteenth century, the U.S. economy moved toward industrialization. • World systems theory shows us that the changing nature of the economy and occupational structure has altered the context and meaning of work for many families. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.1.1 Trends in Child Labor Objective: Summarize historical trends in child labor • Child labor is common throughout the world. • As industrialization took hold in the United States, children often worked alongside their parents. – First state child labor law was passed in Massachusetts in 1836. – 1892 Democratic Party platform proposed a ban on factory employment for children under the age of 15. • By 1938, minimum employment age and maximum hours for children at work were established. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.1.2 Recent Women’s Labor Force Trends (1 of 2) Objective: Compare changes in women’s labor to sociocultural attitudes about working women • For most of the twentieth century, most married women with children did not work outside the home. • Beginning in the 1990s, most mothers began to work outside the home for pay. • The change most likely reflects increasing job and educational opportunities for women, feminist ideas of social and economic equality, and changes in the economy. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.1.2 Recent Women’s Labor Force Trends (2 of 2) Figure 11-01 Employment Status of Mothers, by Age of Children, 1975, 1995, 2016 Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.1.3 The Changing Occupational Structure Objective: Explain how industry changes have impacted labor and consumerism • U.S. industries have undergone rapid restructuring in the past few decades. – Boundaries between work and family are blurring. • Many jobs are being outsourced for cheaper labor costs. • Outsourcing contributes to large job losses in the United States. • Today’s families are just now beginning to pull out of a global recession. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.2 Life in a Post-Recession Objective: Determine the impact of the recession on U.S. families • The recession that began in the late 2000s caused hardship for many families. • The civilian labor force was reduced by over 1 million people between 2008 and 2010. • Not all sectors have recovered from the recession. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.2.1 Unemployment and Families Objective: Explain how unemployment rates from the recession affected families • As of the end of 2018, the U.S. unemployment rate was 3.7 percent. • Unemployment during the recession led to a rise in home foreclosures, personal bankruptcies, and inability to access health care. • High unemployment tends to lower marriage rates. • The stress associated with unemployment can endanger relationships and contribute to domestic violence. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.2.2 Low-Level Wages Objective: Compare minimum wage to a livable wage • Some families earn minimum wage or slightly above it. • 29 states have adopted state minimum wages that are above the federal minimum wage. • About 1.2 million hourly workers earn less than the minimum wage. • The concept of paying a living wage is taking hold. – There is not one community in the United States that pays a livable wage for a single person. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.2.3 Part-Time, Nonstandard, and Temporary Work Objective: Explain how nonstandard work impacts family life • Many jobs are now part-time, subcontracted, or temporary. – This is the fastest-growing sector in the United States. • Since 1982, temporary employment has increased several hundred percent. • Nonstandard schedules put stress on families—including adverse outcomes for children. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.2.4 Disposable Workforce Objective: Describe the anxiety of the disposable workforce • Turnover rates in many low-income jobs are high. • Some employers actually like it because new employees earn less than experienced employees. • Disposable workers earn less than those on a regular payroll Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.2.5 Health Insurance and Reform (1 of 2) Objective: Evaluate movements for health insurance reform • In all developed countries except the United States, health care is a right of citizenship. • During World War II, when wage freezes were in effect, some companies decided to offer health insurance as an employment benefit. • By the 1950s and 1960s, people began to equate health insurance with employment. • By the 1970s, health care costs rose substantially. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.2.5 Health Insurance and Reform (2 of 2) • There are many consequences to not having health insurance. – Postponement of health care, not filling prescriptions – Spending money for food and housing on health care – Not getting follow-up care following an accident • Differing opinions on whether to keep the Affordable Care Act – Many people do not know what it is. – Trump’s efforts to repeal it have failed so far. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.3 The Division of Household Labor Objective: Analyze the sociocultural contexts of household labor • Household labor is traditionally considered women’s work. • Since then, research has been conducted to examine who does what in the home, under what circumstances, and how housework is embedded in processes relating to sex and gender. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.3.1 Defining Household Labor Objective: Define household labor • Household labor is generally defined as work that is done to maintain family members or a home. • Top five time-consuming household tasks include: meal preparation and cooking, housecleaning, shopping for groceries and household goods, washing dishes and cleaning up after meals, and laundry. • There is often discrepancy between partners when assessing how much time each person spends on housework. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.3.2 Housework (1 of 2) Objective: Describe the demographics of family housework and childcare • Research indicates that women do significantly more housework than men. • Women tend to work a second shift—the second shift being housework. • Women also contribute more to childcare. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.3.2 Housework (2 of 2) Figure 11-02 Who Does More? Assessments from Parents in Two-Parent Families Who Both Work Full-Time, 2015 Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.3.3 Renegotiating Family Work Objective: Explain how men and women tend to negotiate work schedules • Many families are renegotiating how family labor is performed. • The amount of time both fathers and mothers spend with their children has grown since 1965. • Fathers still have more weekly leisure time than their wives do. • Women value equality in the home but still end up doing more chores themselves. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.3.4 Explanations for the Division of Labor Objective: Compare theories on the division of labor • Several theories explain the relationship between gender and the division of labor. – The Time Availability Perspective – The Relative Resources Perspective – The Gender Perspective Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.3.5 Children’s Labor in the Home Objective: Summarize the trends and impact of child involvement in housework • Children perform household labor for many reasons. • Most children spend little time helping around the house. • Inconsistent and unclear expectations from parents affect children’s participation in household work. • Young children’s work is less gendered than that of teens. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.4 Juggling Work and Family Life Objective: Analyze how family members balance work and social demands • Most parents report that it is difficult to balance job and family responsibilities. • Case study from Hungary shows that work and family life does not need to be as difficult as it is in the United States. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.4.1 Conflict, Overload, and Spillover (1 of 3) Objective: Identify the factors that contribute to positive and negative reactions to work-family balance • Work-family conflict is the tension people feel with the pressures from paid work and family roles are incompatible. • Work-family conflict has increased for men and women in recent decades. • Several factors contribute to work-family conflict. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.4.1 Conflict, Overload, and Spillover (2 of 3) • Role overload is the feeling of being overwhelmed by many different commitments and not having enough time to meet each commitment effectively. • Spillover refers to the negative (sometimes positive) demands involved in one sphere that carry over to another sphere. – Technology causes work to encroach on family time. – Some people are required to travel for their jobs. • The relationship between work and family is gendered. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.4.1 Conflict, Overload, and Spillover (3 of 3) Figure 11-03 Percentage of Mothers and Fathers Who Say That Being a Working Parent Has Made Career Advancement Easier, Harder, or No Different, 2015 Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.4.2 The Time Crunch Objective: Describe the most significant work-related problems for families today • Parents, especially mothers, are more likely to say they always feel rushed. • Expectations for parenting have changed. • A growing number of mothers prefer to work part time or not at all. • Proposal to allow working parents to collect Social Security for a limited amount of time while raising children. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.4.3 Inflexible Full-Time Work or PartTime Penalty Objective: Explain how work inflexibility impacts families • Part of parents’ tension over balancing work and family is due to an increasing workweek with little control over working conditions. • Workers in the United States who switch to part time earn much less than full-time workers. • Drawbacks to part-time work have been eliminated in many other countries. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.4.4 Childcare (1 of 2) Objective: Evaluate the influences of childcare on families • In a typical week, 11 million children under the age of five are in some type of childcare. • Many parents have multiple arrangements. • Types of childcare arrangements vary by ethnic group and income. • Cost of daycare rivals the cost of housing. • Childcare centers often place a greater emphasis on educational learning. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.4.4 Childcare (2 of 2) • Childcare costs are reduced when children begin school. – Parents must still get coverage for after school. – Many children are left unsupervised after school. • Several states have passed laws that require a minimum age for children staying home alone. • Some states have guidelines that suggest that no child under 12 should be home alone, and no child under 15 should be supervising other children. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.5 Social Policy and Family Resilience—Early Childhood Education and Childcare Policies Objective: Evaluate how social childcare policies impact family resilience • Childcare is a necessity for most families. • It remains a private matter in the United States. – Families are on their own to find the best childhood care they can afford. • Quality controls for childcare are limited and vary by state. • Pay for childcare workers is low. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.5.1 Early Childhood Education and Care (1 of 2) Objective: Compare early childhood policies • Early childhood education and care (ECEC) has become an important issue in many parts of the world. • ECEC is a statutory right in all countries except the United States. • In the United States, there is no statutory entitlement until age 5–7, depending on the state. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.5.1 Early Childhood Education and Care (2 of 2) • In other countries, the government pays most of the cost of ECEC. – Staff are required to complete several years of higher education. • In the United States, parents pay most ECEC costs. – There is no agreed-upon minimum training/knowledge requirement for staff. • The United States is a leader in research on child development, but its programs do not reflect that research. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11.5.2 The Effect of Childcare on Children’s Well-Being Objective: Analyze the effects of childcare • Determining the precise effects of mother’s employment on childcare on children’s well-being is challenging. • Several factors contribute to these challenges. • There are conflicting findings as to whether childcare is beneficial to children. • The quality of the childcare seems to be the most important factor. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Review (1 of 5) 11.1 The Changing Economy and Work • In colonial America, most families worked closely with the land. • In the nineteenth century, the U.S. economy moved from an agricultural one to an industrial one. • Work was transformed into something that was done away from home for wages. • Technology is transforming the workplace today. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Review (2 of 5) 11.2 Life in a Post-Recession • The recession in the late 2000s caused hardship for many families. • Not all individuals and families have recovered from the recession, though the economy has improved. • During the recession, many people lost their jobs or had their incomes reduced, resulting in foreclosures, personal bankruptcies, and lack of access to health care. • People and families do not immediately recover from unemployment. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Review (3 of 5) 11.3 The Division of Household Labor • Household labor refers to unpaid work that is done to maintain family members or a home. • It usually excludes childcare and other caregiving. • Tasks are usually defined as routine or occasional labor. • Women do significantly more housework and childcare than men. • Several theories explain the relationship between gender and the division of household labor. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Review (4 of 5) 11.4 Juggling Work and Family Life • Work-family conflict—the tension people feel when pressures from paid work and family roles are incompatible. • Role-overload—the feeling of being overwhelmed by many different commitments and insufficient time to meet them. • Spillover—the negative (or positive) moods, experiences, and demands involved in one sphere spill over into another sphere. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Review (5 of 5) 11.5 Social Policy and Family Resilience—Early Childhood Education and Childcare Policies • The relationship between childcare and child well-being is mixed and contradictory because differences are relatively small and are dependent on many variables. • Quality of childcare seems to be the most important determinant of its effectiveness. • In the United States, most working parents have to find and pay for childcare or early childhood education for their children. Most other countries provide and pay for this care. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Copyright This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the accompanying text in their classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Families and Their Social Worlds Fourth Edition Chapter 12 Aging Families Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives (1 of 2) 12.1 Contextualize the worldwide demographic revolution 12.2 Apply theories of aging to family life 12.3 Determine the economic plight of elderly people and their families 12.4 Relate aging to the experience of marriage 12.5 Analyze the relationships between elderly and younger family members Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives (2 of 2) 12.6 Evaluate how culture influences ideas and expectations of retirement 12.7 Analyze the ways that health and health care access impact aging families 12.8 Evaluate Medicare as a health insurance option Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 12.1 Changing Demographics Objective: Contextualize the worldwide demographic revolution • Earth’s population is growing—and aging. • It is happening everywhere in the world. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 12.1.1 Aging Around the World (1 of 7) Objective: Describe global patterns of aging • In 2015, the world’s elderly population was 617 million. • Japan is the oldest country with 28 percent of the population 65 or older. • Qatar and the United Arab Emirates are the youngest countries with only 1 percent of the population over the age of 65. • The question of how to care for the elderly will become one of the challenging questions of the future. Copyright © 2020, 2016, 2012 Pear …
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