1) Describe the tactical CI analysis steps and processes at the tactical level. It is best to enumerate the steps involved.

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Please address military tactical counterintelligence analysis, which has three main components: C-HUMINT, C-SIGINT, C-IMINT.

The FM describes each element and the process of nominating targets and then the role of analysis and production.

1) Describe the tactical CI analysis steps and processes at the tactical level. It is best to enumerate the steps involved.

2) Prepare a plan that describes the analysis you would conduct (using the FM as a step-by-step guide) if you were present during the November 2004 Battle of Fallujah and the G-2 nominated Abu Musab al-Zarqawi’s intelligence operations in support of his kidnappings, beheading factory, bomb-making factory, etc. as a principal target. Al-Zarqawi operated his HQ in Fallujah throughout most of 2004. Remember to exploit this target via C-HUMINT, C-SIGINT, and C-IMINT.

3) Research and uncover information about this case/target in order to help you develop analysis. Naturally, since you cannot collect the information your plan will be suppositional (Propose how you would do the collection and analysis–not actually doing the collection and analysis).

Reading material: https://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/library/policy/army/fm/2-0/chap11.htm


Choose one of the Intelligence agencies in the Intelligence Community (excluding CIA and FBI). Define and discuss the leadership structure and the counterintelligence mission within that agency.

Next, discuss the capability of the CI assets and focus of the CI collection against a specific threat. Identify which title within U.S. code the agency operates under, and specific historical examples of CI efforts within that agency.

Make sure to include information from our required material for the week in your discussion.

Reading material: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/apus/detail.action?docID=449332#

Please place each title number in a separate word document. Reading materials will be attached. All work should be cited. Two or more reference is recommended. Word count 300-350.



FM 34-60 Table of Contents Page 1 of 3 *FM 34-60 HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY Washington, DC, 3 October 1995 FIELD MANUAL NO. 34-60 FM 34-60 COUNTERINTELLIGENCE Table of Contents PREFACE CHAPTER 1 – MISSION AND STRUCTURE General Mission CI in Support of Force XXI Intelligence Tasks CI Tasks Army CI as a Function of MI Counterreconnaissance Other Specialties Peace, War, and OOTW The CI Structure CI Support to US Forces Planning Tasking and Reporting DODDOA-006278 http://atiam.train.army.mil/portal/atia/adIsc/view/public/296784-1/fm/34-60/toc.htm 12/28/2004 FM 34-60 Table of Contents Page 2 of 3 Joint and Combined Operations Legal Review CHAPTER 2 – INVESTIGATIONS General Types of Investigations CHAPTER 3- OPERATIONS AND TECHNIQUES General Operations Techniques CHAPTER 4- COUNTERINTELLIGENCE COLLECTION ACTIVITIES General Control of Source Information CI Liaison Debriefing CI Force Protection Source Operations CHAPTER 5- COUNTERINTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS AND PRODUCTION General CI Analysis CI Analysis Target Nominations CI Analysis Products APPENDIX A – COUNTER-HUMAN INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES Section I – BASIC INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES Section II – INVESTIGATIVE LEGAL PRINCIPLES Section III – TECHNICAL INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES DODDOA-006279 http://atiam.train.army.mil/portal/atia/adlsc/view/public/296784-1/fm/34-60/toc.htm 12/28/2004 FM 34-60 Table of Contents Page 3 of 3 Section IV – SCREENING, CORDON, AND SEARCH OPERATIONS Section V – PERSONALITIES, ORGANIZATIONS, AND INSTALLATIONS LIST Section VI – COUNTER-HUMAN INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS Section VII – PERSONNEL SECURITY INVESTIGATIONS Section VIII – COUNTERINTELLIGENCE INVESTIGATIONS APPENDIX B – COUNTER-SIGNALS INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES Section I – DATABASE Section II – THREAT ASSESSMENT Section III – VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT Section IV – COUNTERMEASURES OPTIONS DEVELOPMENT Section V – COUNTERMEASURES EVALUATION APPENDIX C – COUNTER-IMAGERY INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES GLOSSARY Section I – Abbreviations and Acronyms Section II – Terms REFERENCES AUTHORIZATION LETTER DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. *This publication supersedes FM 34-60, 5 February1990. DODDOA-006280 http://ati arn.train.anny.mil/portal/ati a/adlsc/vi ew/public/296784-1/fm/34-60/toc.htin 12/28/2004 Page 1 of 1 FM 34-60 Preface PREFACE This field manual (FM) provides guidance to commanders, counterintelligence (CI) agents, and analysts. The first four chapters provide information to the commander and staff while the remainder provides the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) required to aggressively identify, neutralize, and exploit foreign intelligence attempts to conduct operations against the United States (US) Army. CI supports Army operations by providing a clear picture of the threat to commands at all echelons and actions required to protect the force from exploitation by foreign intelligence. CI operations include conducting investigations, offensive and defensive operations, security and vulnerability analyses, and intelligence collection in peace and at all levels of conflict to support command needs. CI supports the total intelligence process by focusing on foreign intelligence collection efforts. CI is designed to provide commanders the enemy intelligence collection situation and targeting information in order to counter foreign intelligence service (FIS) activities. Cl is an integral part of the US Army’s all-source intelligence capability. By its nature, CI is a multidiscipline effort that includes counter-human intelligence (C-HUMINT), counter-signals intelligence (C-SIGINT), and counter-imagery intelligence (C-(MINT) designed to counter foreign all-source collection. The CI force in conjunction with other intelligence assets must have the capability to detect all aspects of intelligence collection and related activities that pose a threat to the security of Army operations, personnel, and materiel. Through its database (friendly and adversary) and analytical capability, CI provides sound recommendations. which if implemented, will result in the denial of information to the threat. It should be noted that any decision regarding the implementation of CI recommendations aimed at denying collection opportunities to the adversary is a command decision. The commander may decide to accept the risk of enemy collection in favor of time, resources, or other higher priority considerations. At that point, the CI mission is considered to be successful because it is a tool of the commander. This manual is designed for use by commanders and their staffs; all military intelligence (MI) commanders, their staffs, and trainers; and MI personnel at all echelons. It applies equally to the Active Array, United States Army Reserve (USAR), and Army National Guard (ARNG). It is also intended for commanders and staffs of joint and combined commands, United States Naval and Marine Forces, units of the US Air Force. and the military forces of allied countries. Provisions of this manual are subject to international Standardization Agreements (STANAGs) 2363 and 2844 (Edition Two). When amendment, revision, or cancellation of this publication affects or violates the international agreements concerned. the preparing agency will take appropriate reconciliation action through international standardization channels. The proponent of this publication is the United States Army Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca. Send comments and recommendations on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forme) directly to Commander. US Army Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca, ATTN: ATZS-TDL-D, Fort Huachuca, AZ 85613-6000. Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men. DODD0A-006 281 http://atiam.train.army.mil/portal/atia/adlsc/view/public/296784-1/fin/34-60/Pref.htm 12/28/2004 Page 1 of 11 FM 34-60 Chptr 1 Mission And Structure This chapter implements STANAG 2844 (Edition Two) Chapter 1 MISSION AND STRUCTURE GENERAL Threat intelligence services have the capability to conduct continuous collection against the US Army during peacetime, operations other than war (OOTW), and during war itself. The intelligence that results from these operations provides a significant advantage to threat forces, and could easily result in increased US casualties on the battlefield. Fortunately, there are many actions we can take to counter threat intelligence efforts and to provide force protection to all US Army units. The most dramatic of these actions are designed to neutralize enemy collection. These actions include-• Using field artillery to destroy ground-based enemy signals intelligence (SIGINT) collectors. • Conducting sophisticated C-HUMINT operations in a foreign city long before overt hostilities • commence. • Employing direct fire weapon systems to destroy enemy reconnaissance. Brigades conducting defensive operations at the National Training Center often commit a tank-infantry company team to provide counterreconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (C-RISTA) protection. While not as flashy, routine security procedures provide crucial force protection. These procedures include but are not limited to-• Personnel security, to include background investigations, will ensure all personnel who have access to sensitive or classified information will fully protect it. • Information security, particularly in regard to handling classified and compartmented information, will be a challenging field in the future considering the ease with which information can be copied and transmitted in an increasingly automated Army. • Physical security, which ensures physical measures are taken to safeguard personnel, prevents unauthorized access to equipment, installations, materiel, and documents to safeguard them against espionage, sabotage, damage, and theft. • Operations security (OPSEC), which ensures that all essential elements of friendly information (EEFI), are reasonably concealed from enemy collection assets. Another crucial component in the fight against threat collection efforts is CI analysis. These include efforts to identify the general capabilities and specific operations of enemy human intelligence (HUMINT), SIGINT, and imagery intelligence (IMINT) collection. CI analysis also includes the development of profiles that identify friendly vulnerabilities to enemy collection and possible countermeasures. Measures such as these provide a crucial force protection shield that is difficult for the FIS to penetrate. More importantly, a comprehensive CI program significantly degrades the threat’s ability to target and conduct combat or terrorist operations against US Forces. Total CI provides the combat commander with a definite advantage on the battlefield. DODDOA-006282 http://atiam.train.anny.mil/portaliatia/adlsc/view/public/296784-1/fm/34-60/Chl.htm 12/28/2004 FM 34-60 Chptr 1 Mission And Structure Page 2 of 11 AR 381-10, AR 381-12, and AR 38147 (S) contain policies and procedures governing the conduct of intelligence activities by Department of the Army (DA). MISSION The CI mission is authorized by Executive Order (E0) 12333, implemented by AR 381-20. The Army conducts aggressive, comprehensive, and coordinated CI activities worldwide. The purpose is to detect, identify, assess, counter, neutralize, or exploit threat intelligence collection efforts. This mission is accomplished during peacetime and all levels of conflict. Many CI functions, shown in Figure 1-1, are conducted by echelons above corps (EAC); some by echelons corps and below (ECB); and some are conducted by both. Those CI assets found at ECB respond to tactical commanders. EAC assets respond primarily to commanders of intelligence units while supporting all commanders within their theater or area of operations (AO). DODDOA-006283 http://atiam.train.anny.miliportal/atia/adIsc/view/public/296784-1/fm/34-60/Chl.htm 12/28/2004 Page 3 of 11 FM 34-60 Chptr 1 Mission And Structure EAC OOTW PEACE WAR X x X OOTW X X WAR x X XX X XXX X 1 XXXX XX X X X Threat and Mendiy databases Threat assessment Vulnerability assessment COunterrneasures recommendations Countermeasures evatusbon XXXXXX X Local operaiscnoi dat collodion Debriefing and interns:jaw Returned US detector debnoting ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS X X XX X XXXXX X XX INVESTKIATIONS Personnel Security (OCONUS) Army Cl Investigations: Treason Espionage SOYirc Subversion Sedition FIS-carectat sabotage Terrorism Assassination Detection Detention Special category absentees Deliberate security violations • Suicide or attempted suicide Cl scope pay7aph exarninabons Techmal penetrabon OPERATIONS CI special operations CI support to tome protection: CI support to mobilization Cr support to combatting tenon= Cl support to rear Operabons CI support to civil-militaty operabons Cl audition to psychological operaborn Cl support to battietiaid deception CI support to OPSEC CI support to Men* C-E CI support to intormatcn operabons CI support to courver-ctrUbs CI force protection some operations (deployed) Ace and assistance CI technical support activities CI support to acquisition and SAPs CI support to HUMINT Cl support to treaty verification Liaison Cl support to domestic civil disturbance Cl support to natural disaster operations C-S/GINT support C4MINT Flossie inteagenoe senulabon (Red Team) Covering alert support COLLECTION Identifying and validatsng requirements ECM PEACE X CI FUNCTION Figure 1-1. Counterireenigence functions. The essence of the Army’s CI mission is to support force protection. By its nature, CI is a multidiscipline (C-HUMINT, C-SIGINT, and C-IMINT) function designed to degrade threat intelligence and targeting capabilities. Multidiscipline counterintelligence (MDCI) is an integral and equal part of intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW). MDCI operations support force protection through OPSEC, deception, and rear area operations across the range of military operations. For more information on IEW operations, see FM 34-1. CI IN SUPPORT OF FORCE XXI CI must meet the goals and objectives of Force XXI and force projection operations. US Forces will be DODDOA-006284 http://atiam.train.army.mil/portal/atia/adlsc/view/public/296784-1/fin/34-60/Chl.htM 12/28/2004 Page 4 of 11 FM 34-60 Chptr 1 Mission And Structure continental United States (CONUS)-based with a limited forward presence. The Army must be capable of rapidly deploying anywhere in the world; operating in a joint or combined (multinational) environment; and defeating simultaneous regional threats on the battlefield; or conducting OOTW. CI, as part of IEW, is fundamental to effective planning, security, and execution of force projection operations. Successful force projection CI support is based on the same five key principles shown in Figure 1-2 and discussed below. CI, in support of force protection, will be required on the initial deployment of any force projection operation. INTEWGENCE SYNCHRONIZATION MELD WITH OPERATIONS AND FORCE PROTECTION FOCUS DOWNWARDLY INTEWGENCE FLEXIBLE AND VERSATILE Figure 1-2. Principles of force projection IEW operations. THE COMMANDER DRIVES INTELLIGENCE: The commander focuses on the intelligence system by clearly designating his priority intelligence requirements (PIR), targeting requirements and priorities. He ensures that the Intelligence Battlefield Operating System (BOS) is fully employed and synchronized with his maneuver and fire support BOSs. He demands that the Intelligence BOS provides the intelligence he needs, when he needs it, and in the form he needs. INTELLIGENCE SYNCHRONIZATION: The J2 or G2 synchronizes intelligence collection, analysis, and dissemination with operations to ensure the commander receives the intelligence he needs, in the form he can use, and in time to influence the decisionmaking process. Intelligence synchronization is a continuous process which keeps IEW operations tied to the commander’s critical decisions and concept of operations. CI collection, analysis, and dissemination, like other intelligence, have to meet the commander’s time requirements to be of any use other than historical. SPLIT-BASED OPERATIONS: Split-based operations provide deploying tactical commanders with a portion of their collection assets and augment full employment of organic assets. Split-based intelligence operations employ collection and analysis elements from all echelons, national to tactical, in sanctuaries from which they can operate against the target area. DODDOA-006285 http://atiam.train.army.mil/portal/atia/adlsc/view/public/296784-1/fm/34-60/Chl.htm 12/28/2004 FM 34-60 Chptr 1 Mission And Structure Page 5 of 11 TACTICAL TAILORING: In force projection operations, the commander tactically tailors CI, as well as all IEW, support for each contingency based on the mission and availability of resources. He must decide which key CI personnel and equipment to deploy early, and when to phase in his remaining CI assets. BROADCAST DISSEMINATION: Broadcast dissemination of intelligence includes the simultaneous broadcast of near-real time (NRT) CI from collectors and processors at all echelons. It permits commanders at all echelons to simultaneously receive the same intelligence, thereby providing a common picture of the battlefield. It allows commanders to skip echelons and pull CI directly from the echelon broadcasting it. INTELLIGENCE TASKS Army military intelligence (MI) accomplishes its mission by performing six primary tasks: providing indications and warnings (I&W); performing intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB); performing situation development; supporting target development and targeting; developing force protection intelligence; and performing battle damage assessment (BDA). CI TASKS The role of CI is to support the commander’s requirements to preserve essential secrecy and to protect the force directly or indirectly. Thus, CI contributes to the commander’s force protection programs. Force protection is a command responsibility to protect personnel, equipment, and facilities. To carry out his force protection responsibilities, a commander requires support from several sources, one of which is the intelligence community. CI support to force protection must be tailored to the sensitivity of the supported organization and its vulnerability to FIS and hostile attack. CI support can be tailored from a combination of activities to include-• • • • • • • • • Mobilization security, including ports and major records repositories. Combatting terrorism. Rear operations. Civil-military affairs. Psychological operations (PSYOP). Battlefield deception. OPSEC. Friendly Communications-Electronics (C-E) (C-SIGINT). CI force protection source operations (CFSO). ARMY CI AS A FUNCTION OF MI Army CI, as a multidiscipline intelligence function, is an integral part of the Army and Department of Defense (DOD) and national intelligence communities. CI missions are conducted in support of the objectives of these communities. COUNTERRECONNAISSANCE DODDOA-006286 CI is an integral part of the command counterreconnaissance effort. Human and other intelligence sensors determine adversary reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (RISTA) http://atiam.train.army.mil/portal/atia/adlsc/view/public/296784-1/fm/34-60/Chl.htrn 12/28/2004 FM 34-60 Chptr 1 Mission And Structure Page 6 of 11 and other battlefield capabilities, and project resultant data into battle planning and execution. As the adversary worries about our C-RISTA capability, our CI efforts target his RISTA capabilities. CI focuses on the HUMINT threat in the AO and provides analytical support in identifying enemy SIGINT and IMINT capabilities and intentions. CI has a limited neutralization and exploitation capability directed at low-level adversary HUMINT collectors or sympathizers acting in a collection or sabotage capacity. The commander is responsible for security countermeasure programs and training to include personnel, physical, document, information security, crime prevention, and OPSEC. OTHER SPECIALTIES Army CI is not limited to the activities of a small force of CI agents and technicians; rather, it is the responsibility of all Army personnel to follow common sense security measures to minimize any foreign intelligence threat. Although a major part of the CI mission is to counter or neutralize FIS efforts, this does not mean that only CI personnel take part in these actions. They may require-• • • • • • Other intelligence specialists such as interrogators. Military police (MP). Civilian counterparts and authorities. Combat forces. Civil-military affairs and PSYOP. Criminal Investigation Command (CIDC) agents. The combined use of C-HUMINT, C-SIGINT, and C-IMINT TTPs provides a multidisciplined approach to denying information to unauthorized persons. This approach limits the threat’s ability to collect against us. Although this FM describes these three operations separately in Chapter 3, they are often conducted simultaneously by the same assets. PEACE, WAR, AND OOTW The Army conducts CI during peacetime and at all levels of conflict to protect the force from foreign exploitation. During peacetime, CI simultaneously supports the commander’s needs and DA policy. During war, CI operations are much the same as in peacetime, except the adversary state or nation is well-defined. The commander’s needs are the top priority. OOTW may include the direct or indirect support of one or more foreign governments or groups, or international organizations such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). OOTW may be initiated unilaterally in the absence of foreign support. Whether unilateral or multinational, US …
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