1. Chronological order—order of time, good for narratives 2. Spatial order-good for descriptions of locations; top to bottom, e.g. 3. Emphatic order-least important to most important; most common for college writing Ensure that transition sentences are present to create a good flow to the essay Include substantial examples and evidence to support your argument and remember to cite, cite, cite! Make sure each example is relevant to your particular topic Conclusion:This section should wrap all of your arguments and points Should restate the main arguments in a simplified manner Ensure that the reader is left with something to think about, particularly if it is an argumentative essay

I’m working on a psychology question and need guidance to help me study.

 

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Write a 5 pages essay on any topic from the uploaded textbook.

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Broad topic: sleep Subtopic: shift work Paper Topic: Does shift work create health problems for individuals. Locate 3-5 academic articles related to your topic. All articles should be a minimum of 3 pages in length. Your articles should be current and no older than 2008. Your articles should come from peer-reviewed journals that you can get from the Grossmont Library database. Articles from newspapers, popular magazines, book reviews, or websites are not acceptable for this paper. All of your articles should not come from the same publication. Intro: Must contain an attention grabber for the reader or at least make the essay sound interesting, may begin with a quote about the particular topic Ensure that the intro moves from the general to the specific in regards to the topic Provides the reader with a “road map” of the essay in a logical order At the end there should be what is called a thesis statement, arguably the most important component of the intro The thesis statement states the aim of the paper and may give insight into the author’s examples and evidence Body:Includes the evidence and support of the paper in addition to the author’s ideas Paragraphs must include a topic sentence which relates the discussion back to the thesis statementLogical ordering of ideas: 3 types of order

 

1. Chronological order—order of time, good for narratives 2. Spatial order-good for descriptions of locations; top to bottom, e.g. 3. Emphatic order-least important to most important; most common for college writing Ensure that transition sentences are present to create a good flow to the essay Include substantial examples and evidence to support your argument and remember to cite, cite, cite! Make sure each example is relevant to your particular topic Conclusion:This section should wrap all of your arguments and points Should restate the main arguments in a simplified manner Ensure that the reader is left with something to think about, particularly if it is an argumentative essay

 

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LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT A Psychological Perspective Second Edition By Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French 1 Lifespan Development: A Psychological Perspective Second Edition By Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French (Published 2019) This Open Education Resource (OER) textbook was funded by a grant from the College of Lake County Foundation and supported by the Business and Social Sciences Division. This textbook can be found at: http://dept.clcillinois.edu/psy/LifespanDevelopment.pdf Publication is under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 unported license to view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. 2 Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction to Lifespan Development Chapter 2: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth Chapter 3: Infancy and Toddlerhood Chapter 4: Early Childhood Chapter 5: Middle and Late Childhood Chapter 6: Adolescence Chapter 7: Emerging and Early Adulthood Chapter 8: Middle Adulthood Chapter 9: Late Adulthood Chapter 10: Death and Dying 3 Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction to Lifespan Development …………………………………………………………………………… 9 Lifespan Perspective …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10 Conceptions of Age ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13 Periods of Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14 Issues in Lifespan Development ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16 Historical Theories on Development …………………………………………………………………………………………. 17 Contemporary Theories on Development …………………………………………………………………………………… 18 Descriptive Research …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24 Correlational Research ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26 Experimental Research ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28 Research Involving Time-Spans ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29 Conducting Ethical Research …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33 Chapter 2: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth…………………………………………………………………… 35 Heredity …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35 Genotypes and Phenotypes …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36 Genetic Disorders ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37 Chromosomal Abnormalities …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39 Behavioral Genetics ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41 Prenatal Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43 The Germinal Period …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43 The Embryonic Period …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44 The Fetal Period…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45 Prenatal Brain Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47 Teratogens ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47 Maternal Factors ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53 Prenatal Assessment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57 Complications of Pregnancy …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59 Preparation for Childbirth ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60 Stages of Birth for Vaginal Delivery …………………………………………………………………………………………. 61 Assessing the Neonate …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63 Problems of the Newborn ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 63 Postpartum Maternal Concerns ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 65 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 65 Chapter 3: Infancy and Toddlerhood ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 71 The Brain in the First Two Years ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 72 Infant Sleep ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 74 From Reflexes to Voluntary Movements ……………………………………………………………………………………. 77 Motor Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 78 Sensory Capacities ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79 Nutrition ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 82 Global Considerations and Malnutrition …………………………………………………………………………………….. 84 Piaget and the Sensorimotor Stage ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 85 Language …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 89 Components of Language ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90 Language Developmental Progression ………………………………………………………………………………………. 91 Theories of Language Development………………………………………………………………………………………….. 93 4 Temperament ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97 Infant Emotions …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 99 Forming Attachments ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 101 Erikson: Trust vs. Mistrust ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 102 Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation Technique …………………………………………………………………. 102 Erikson: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt ………………………………………………………………………………… 106 Measuring Infant Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 106 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 106 Chapter 4: Early Childhood ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115 Brain Maturation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116 Motor Skill Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 117 Toilet Training …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 119 Sleep ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 119 Sexual Development in Early Childhood ………………………………………………………………………………….. 120 Nutritional Concerns …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 121 Piaget’s Preoperational Stage ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 123 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development ………………………………………………………… 126 Information Processing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 127 Attention ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 127 Memory …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 128 Neo-Piagetians …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 130 Children’s Understanding of the World ……………………………………………………………………………………. 131 Language Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 133 Bilingualism ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 134 Preschool …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 135 Autism Spectrum Disorder ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 136 Erikson: Initiative vs. Guilt …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 139 Self-Concept and Self-Esteem ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139 Self-Control ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 140 Gender …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 140 Theories of Gender Development …………………………………………………………………………………………… 141 Transgender Children ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 142 Parenting Styles …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 143 Spanking ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 145 Sibling Relationships …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 146 Play ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 147 Children and the Media ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 149 Child Care ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 150 Child Abuse………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 151 Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) ………………………………………………………………………………….. 152 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 155 Chapter 5: Middle and Late Childhood ………………………………………………………………………………………. 164 Physical Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 164 Sports ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 165 Childhood Obesity ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 168 Concrete Operational Thought ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 170 Information Processing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 172 Language Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 174 Communication Disorders ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 174 5 Theories of Intelligence ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 175 Measuring Intelligence: Standardization and the Intelligence Quotient ……………………………………………… 179 Extremes of Intelligence: Intellectual Disability and Giftedness ……………………………………………………… 181 Education …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 183 Cultural Differences in the Classroom……………………………………………………………………………………… 184 Children with Disabilities …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 187 Children with Disabilities: Legislation …………………………………………………………………………………….. 191 Erikson: Industry vs. Inferiority ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 193 Self-Understanding …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 193 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development ………………………………………………………………………………… 194 Friends and Peers ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 196 Bullying …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 199 Family Life……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 200 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 205 Chapter 6: Adolescence ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 215 Growth in Adolescence………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 215 Sexual Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 216 Adolescent Brain ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 219 Adolescent Sleep ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 221 Adolescent Sexual Activity …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 222 Eating Disorders ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 223 Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 225 Information Processing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 227 Education …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 228 School Based Preparatory Experiences ……………………………………………………………………………………. 230 Teenagers and Working ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 230 Teenage Drivers …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 231 Self-concept and Self-esteem in Adolescence ……………………………………………………………………………. 233 Erikson: Identity vs. Role Confusion……………………………………………………………………………………….. 233 Parents and Teens: Autonomy and Attachment ………………………………………………………………………….. 237 Peers ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 238 Romantic Relationships ……………………………………………. …
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